Snacking Behavior And The Impact Of Mindset
This study delves into the impact of adopting a health-oriented versus hedonic mindset on daily snacking behavior in the context of an environment abundant in high-caloric and palatable foods, contributing to challenges in maintaining a healthy body weight. The hypothesis posited that a health mindset would result in reduced snacking, especially for individuals with high dietary restraint and less prominently for those with high trait self-control.
Over a three-week period, 111 female participants, with a body mass index range of 20–23.5, were randomly assigned to a one-week health or hedonic mindset using smartphone Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) conducted four times daily. Contrary to expectations, the study found that mindset did not significantly impact snacking behavior. Instead, both the intensity of cravings and the amount of snacks consumed decreased over time, unaffected by mindset, dietary restraint, or trait self-control. Importantly, the reduced craving and snacking were not attributed to decreased compliance, potentially being influenced by intensive monitoring or socially desirable responses.
Further analyses revealed that cravings were most pronounced in the late afternoon (3:30–5:00 PM), and irrespective of mindset conditions, the degree of craving correlated negatively with trait self-control.
In conclusion, the study suggests avenues for future research to explore the manipulation of monitoring levels and the development of individually tailored interventions to gain a deeper understanding and influence over snacking behaviors.
This comprehensive study delves into the intricate dynamics of daily snacking behavior within the context of the contemporary obesogenic environment, where tempting, high-caloric snacks are ubiquitously available. The primary focus is on how an individual’s mindset—particularly, whether they adopt a health-oriented or hedonic perspective—may influence their snacking habits. The rationale stems from the recognition that maintaining a healthy body weight has become increasingly challenging amid the pervasive availability of indulgent snacks.
The study acknowledges the existing disparity in research findings regarding the relationship between snack consumption and weight fluctuations. It attributes this incongruity to methodological variations, including diverse assessment approaches, small sample sizes, gender differences, and reliance on retrospective self-reports. By recognizing the need for more nuanced exploration, the study seeks to contribute valuable insights into the multifaceted interplay between mindset, individual traits (such as dietary restraint and self-control), and daily snacking behavior.
Furthermore, the research underscores the changing landscape of snack foods, noting a shift toward products that are both sugary and fatty. This transformation aligns with the broader obesogenic trend in the environment, emphasizing the importance of investigating not only the factors influencing snacking behavior but also strategies to counteract the obesogenic influences.
Crucially, the study employs sophisticated methodologies, including smartphone-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) and Ecological Momentary Interventions (EMI). EMA enables the continuous, real-time assessment of participants’ snacking behaviors, providing ecologically valid data compared to traditional approaches. Meanwhile, EMI serves as a tool to manipulate participants’ mindsets, presenting an innovative way to influence behavior in daily life. The combined use of these approaches positions the study at the forefront of research methodologies, allowing for a more nuanced and dynamic understanding of the complex interplay between mindset and snacking behavior.
The core hypothesis revolves around the expected impact of a one-week mindset manipulation—specifically, whether adopting a health or hedonic mindset—on participants’ daily snacking behavior. Anticipated outcomes include reduced cravings and snacking in the health mindset group compared to the hedonic mindset group. Importantly, the study hypothesizes that these effects will be modulated by individual traits, with higher dietary restraint intensifying the impact of the health mindset and higher trait self-control potentially mitigating its influence.
In essence, this study aspires to contribute valuable insights that extend beyond the conventional paradigms of snacking behavior research. By leveraging advanced methodologies and considering the multifaceted influences on individuals’ mindsets, traits, and environmental factors, it aims to provide a nuanced understanding that can inform strategies for promoting healthier snacking habits in the face of an obesogenic environment.
This study focused on investigating the impact of mindset—specifically, a health-oriented versus hedonic perspective—on the daily snacking behavior of 111 female participants aged 18–35, with a body mass index (BMI) between 20 and 23.5, and without eating disorders. To ensure a controlled sample, a limited BMI range was set, and participants were required to have a minimum compliance rate of 75% in answering Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) prompts during the three-week study period.
Of the 367 initially interested volunteers, 256 were excluded due to reasons such as low compliance, technical issues, or dropout. The final sample consisted mainly of university students, with a mean compliance rate of 92.81%. Participants were recruited through social media and a recruitment company. Power analysis determined that a minimum of 46 participants per group was needed for statistical validity.
The study employed a randomized allocation of participants into either the health or hedonic mindset condition. The Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) protocol involved participants reporting snacking behaviors four times a day for three weeks using a smartphone app. Three dependent variables were assessed: craving degree, craving amount, and snacking amount. The high-caloric snack categories were represented by pictures, and participants were instructed to report their cravings and consumption.
The mindset manipulation occurred during the second week of the EMA protocol, with participants receiving mindset-specific notification messages four times daily. Health mindset messages emphasized the health aspects of foods or the benefits of a healthy lifestyle, while hedonic mindset messages focused on the pleasurable properties of foods. Importantly, participants were debriefed after the study, and compensation was provided.
This detailed methodology aimed to explore the nuanced relationship between mindset and snacking behavior, considering individual traits such as self-control and dietary restraint. The study’s design, adherence to ethical considerations, and thorough participant screening contribute to its robustness and potential to provide valuable insights into the complex interplay of psychological factors influencing daily snacking habits.
The study implemented a minimum compliance threshold of 75% throughout its three-week duration to ensure data reliability. To assess potential variations in compliance across the study phases, a mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested the effects of time (pre vs. post) and condition (hedonic vs. health mindset) on the average compliance rate (%).
Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data analysis employed a 2 (pre vs. post) × 2 (hedonic vs. health mindset) analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Dietary restraint (RS) or self-control (BSCS) was introduced as a mean-centered covariate in separate ANCOVAs due to their correlation, preventing simultaneous inclusion to avoid multicollinearity issues. Preregistered tests for moderation by RS or BSCS were conducted for each ANCOVA, which explored three dependent variables: craving degree, craving amount, and snacking amount, resulting in six ANCOVAs.
Additional analyses focused on investigating the influence of the time of day on snacking behavior. Data from four time points were averaged over the three-week period and subjected to 4 (time points: 8:30–10:00 AM, 12:00 noon to 1:30 PM, 3:30–5:00 PM, 7:00–8:30 PM) × 2 (health vs. hedonic mindset) ANOVAs. Notably, participants who did not provide data for each time point were excluded from these analyses.
Correlational analyses involved computing Pearson’s correlations between dietary restraint (RS) and trait self-control (BSCS) and the dependent variables (craving degree, craving amount, and snacking amount). Correlations were calculated for the entire sample and separately for each mindset condition. It’s worth noting that the two moderators, dietary restraint and self-control, were already included as covariates in the main analyses. These rigorous analytical approaches were undertaken to explore potential relationships and patterns within the dataset comprehensively.
The presented results highlight key findings from the study, emphasizing that all means and standard deviations in the figures are raw and uncorrected for any covariate.
– The analysis focused on participants meeting the 75% compliance threshold in each study phase (n=111).
– The average compliance rate was 92.81%, with no significant difference between pre- and post-mindset manipulation.
– Compliance did not differ between health and hedonic mindset conditions, and the time × mindset interaction was not significant.
– Involving all participants (n=111), the degree of craving decreased over the study, supported by a main effect of time.
– The ANCOVA with dietary restraint (RS) and self-control (BSCS) both showed a significant reduction in craving degree, with no other effects reaching significance.
– This analysis included 101 participants, revealing a marginal main effect of time, indicating a decrease in craving amount over the study.
– Both ANCOVAs with RS and BSCS displayed similar results, with no other effects reaching significance.
– Involving 107 participants, the study found a significant main effect of time, indicating a decrease in snacking amount.
– ANCOVAs with RS and BSCS both supported this finding, with no other significant effects.
Additional Analyses – Time Point of the Day:
– Analyses for craving degree, craving amount, and snacking amount indicated a gradual increase peaking in the late afternoon (3:30–5:00 PM).
– Follow-up t-tests showed significantly higher craving in the late afternoon compared to other times.
– No other main or interaction effects reached significance in these analyses.
– Correlations between dietary restraint (RS) and trait self-control (BSCS) and the dependent variables were non-significant within each mindset condition.
– Across mindset conditions, trait self-control (BSCS) negatively correlated with craving degree, while no other correlations reached significance.
In summary, the study demonstrates a consistent decrease in craving and snacking amounts over time, irrespective of mindset conditions. The analyses provide a nuanced understanding of the interplay between compliance, craving, and snacking behaviors, contributing valuable insights to the field.
The study aimed to test the hypothesis that individuals in a health mindset would exhibit reduced cravings and snacking compared to those in a hedonic mindset. Contrary to expectations, the main findings indicate that mindset did not significantly influence snacking behavior, and this lack of effect was not moderated by trait self-control or dietary restraint.
Key findings include:
1. No Mindset Effect on Snacking Behavior:
– The study did not find a significant impact of mindset on craving or snacking behavior in daily life, diverging from previous promising laboratory results.
– The challenges of replicating mindset effects outside the controlled laboratory environment were acknowledged, emphasizing the need for considering real-life factors such as social interactions and emotions.
2. Time-Related Changes:
– Craving degree and snacking amount consistently decreased over the study period, independent of mindset manipulation.
– Compliance with the Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) protocol remained high, suggesting that the observed changes were not due to reduced adherence.
– Intensive monitoring of snacking behavior might explain the decline, as participants were closely monitored four times a day for three consecutive weeks.
3. Time Points of the Day:
– Participants exhibited significantly higher craving levels in the afternoon (3:30–5:00 PM) compared to other times.
– This aligns with previous studies indicating elevated snack food craving and intake during the afternoon, providing valuable insights for future interventions targeting specific time periods.
4. Correlational Analyses:
– Trait self-control showed a negative correlation with craving degree, consistent with prior laboratory studies emphasizing the influence of trait self-control on resisting high-caloric food temptations and weight management.
The unexpected findings prompt a reevaluation of mindset manipulation effectiveness in daily life contexts, suggesting a shift towards interventions focusing on unintentional behaviors such as habits and impulses. The study also highlights the potential importance of state self-control over trait self-control in the context of EMA studies investigating daily life behaviors. Additionally, the observed time-related patterns in craving and snacking may inform future interventions tailored to specific periods of the day. Overall, these results contribute to the nuanced understanding of mindset effects on snacking behavior in real-life settings.
Oncology Related Tools
- Prognostic Scoring for Myelofibrosis
- Opioid Conversion Calculator
- Updated Advanced Opioid Conversion Calculator
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) Selection Tool
- Absolute Neutrophil Count Calculator
- Body Surface Area (BSA) Multi-Calc
- Carboplatin AUC Calculator
- Carboplatin AUC – Updated Version
- Urinary Indices, Renal Failure Index (RFI) and Fractional Excretion of Sodium (FE-NA)
- Creatinine Clearance (CRCL) – Standard Calculator
- Creatinine Clearance Multi-Calc – All of the latest research
- Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) Settings
- Intravenous Antineoplastic Agents – Administration Guidelines
- Therapeutic Drug Levels
- Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medications
- Allergic response? 12-step desensitization protocol
- Protein requirements calculator
- Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Multi-calc (Estimate caloric requirements)
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment Options
- Common Anti-emetics
- Fall Assessment – Berg Balance Scale
- Topical Steroids Potency Selection Tool
- Parkinson’s Patients Long-Term Survival After Deep Brain Stimulation
- Myasthenia Gravis Therapeutic Benefits Of Monotherapy With Tacrolimus
- Weight Loss In Diabetic Patients After Bariatric Surgery
- Hydrocephalus Shunt Type: A Comparative Meta-Analysis Of Safety And Efficacy
- Knee Osteoarthritis Improvements Using Telehealth Exercise Programs
- Bariatric Surgery In Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Patients
- Mepolizumab Effectiveness In Asthma, Rhinosinusitis, And Sinus Surgery Patients
- Patellofemoral Arthroplasty Designs And Osteoarthritis Progression
- Otitis Externa: A Meta-Analysis Comparing Antibiotic And Non-Antibiotic Therapy
- Music Therapy For Dementia Symptoms Treatment
- Transfusion-Dependent Thalassemia: Iron Overload And Organ Dysfunction
- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Telehealth Effectiveness For Chronic Mental Disorders
- Gout In Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease
- Insomnia And Depression: Smartphone App Interventions
- Acute Gout And Cardiovascular Events: Exploring The Role Of Inflammation
- Ulcerative Proctitis: Best Practice Treatment
- Alcohol Consumption And The Long-Term Risk Of Mortality
- Ozcrelizumab Effectiveness In Multiple Sclerosis
- Pancreatitis Risk In Patients Taking Antipsychotic Medications
- Insomnia Severity And Nutrition
- Obesity Classification And The Risk Of Gallstones
- Antidiabetic Medications And Dementia Risk
- Epilepsy And The Effectiveness Of Cannabidiol Therapy
- Gastric Xanthoma And Gastric Cancer Risk
- Spontaneous Bladder Rupture In Bladder Cancer Patients
- Premature Birth And Adult Risk Of Pain And Fatigue
- Cannabis Medicinal Products For Fibromyalgia Pain
- Prostate Cancer Detection Using Urine Glycoproteins
- Lithium Effects On Renal Function In Geriatric Patients
- Dermatitis And Allergies To Cosmetic Ingredients
- Retinal Nerve Fiber Wedge Defects In Glaucoma And Heart Disease
- Azelaic Acid Treatment For Rosacea And Melasma
- Rheumatoid Arthritis Work Limitation Factors
- Secukinumab Therapy In Psoriasis
- Lung Cancer Patients And Pulmonary Embolism Risk Factors
- Squamous Cell Carcinoma And Immunosuppression Risks
- Necrotizing Fasciitis Treatment And Bacterial Isolates Mortality Risk
- Acellular Dermal Matrix (ADM) For Burn And Trauma Wounds
- Visceral Adiposity And Heart Failure Risk
- Psoriasis Risk In Children With High BMI
- Traumatic Scalp Defects: Case Studies And Treatment Approaches
- Perforator Flaps For Patellar Defects
- GERD And Risk Factors Of Age And Obesity
- Cataract Repair: 20-Year Outcomes In Diabetic Patients
- Spitz Lesions: Clinical Outcomes
- Obesity Treatment With Tirzepatide And Semaglutide
- Hydroxyurea: Pediatric Use In Sickle Cell Anemia
- AKI In Alcohol-Related Hepatitis
- Biologic Therapy Tapering In Inflammatory Arthritis
- Rheumatoid Arthritis: Monitoring Disease With Neutrophil-To-Monocyte Ratio
- Cefuroxime Prophylaxis For Cataract Postoperative Endophthalmitis
- HIV Treatment And Long-Acting Therapy Preferences
- Idiopathic Parkinson’s Tremors: Treatment Options
- Ganaxolone Treatment For Refractory Epilepsy
- Bipolar Disorder And The Impact Of Insulin Sensitivity
- Blue Light Therapy For Melasma Patients
- Insulin Sensitivity In The Brain And Periphery
- Cabozantinib Therapy In Hepatocellular Carcinoma
- Obese Children And Related Skin Conditions
- PD-1/L1 Inhibitors: Treatment Efficacy In Urothelial Carcinoma
- Skin Lightening: Topical Approaches To Treatment
- PPE And Skin Related Reactions
- Encapsulated Papillary Carcinoma Membrane Characteristics
- Ibrutinib Treatment In Waldenström Macroglobulinemia
- Eyelid Carcinoma (SGC): A Tool To Predict Recurrence
- Stomach Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Of Robotic Surgery Complications
- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy In Patients With Insomnia And Chronic Fatigue
- Chemotherapy-Induced Thrombocytopenia In Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
- Endocrine Therapy Outcomes In Senior Breast Cancer Patients
- Hepatocellular Treatment Outcomes: The Influence Of Butyrate Producers
- Non-Invasive Breast Carcinoma Treatment Outcomes
- Control Of Allergic Rhinitis And Asthma Test: A COSMIN Analysis
- Pilonidal Sinus Disease And Carcinoma Prevalence
- Sintilimab And Docetaxel Treatment Comparison In Advanced Lung Cancer
- Tislelizumab Treatment And Quality Of Life In Lung Cancer Patients
- Ciclopirox Hydrolacquer Therapy For Adult Onychomycosis
- Allergic Rhinitis And Genetic Risk Factors
- Serum Potassium Levels And Mortality Risk In CKD
- Postoperative Delirium In The NICU: Hormonal Risk Factors
- Onychomycosis And Diabetic Foot Syndrome
- Childhood BMI And Allergies: A Comprehensive Review
- Pediatric Onychomycosis Prevalence: A Systemic Review
- Hormone Disturbances In Migraine Disorder: A Meta-Analysis
- IGF-1 Levels In Pediatric Low-Level Gliomas
- Visual Field Defects In Patients With Pituitary Tumors
- Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: Studying Age-Specific Therapies
- Levothyroxine Treatment In Patients With Thyroid Cancer
- Ocular Surgery In Infants And Post-Op Eye Drop Risks
- Cancer Care: Gender Bias In Decision-Making
- Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection: A Tool For Assessing Clinical Severity
- Gynecologic Cancer Survivors: A Study Of Lifestyle Factors
- Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors: Secondary Malignancy Risk
- Antithyroid Drug Therapy And Cardiovascular Morbidity
- Eosinophilic Dermatosis In Hematological Malignancy (EDHM): Case Study Reports
- Uterine Leiomyosarcoma: A-Meta Analysis Of Systemic Therapy Effectiveness
- Off-Label Medication Use In Oncology
- Monocytosis And Patient Risk Of Malignancy And Mortality
- Bedside Pediatric Early Warning System: A Validation Study
- Chronic Hyponatremia In Heart Failure
- Massage Therapy For Oncology Patient Pain
- Eyelid Rhabdomyosarcoma Survival In Children’s Oncology
- Injured Athletes: A Meta-Analysis Comparing Topical And Oral Analgesic Efficacy
- Acute Myeloid Leukemia And Diverse Patient Survival Outcomes
- Sarcopenia And Chronic Kidney Disease
- Childhood Obesity: Targeted Dietary Interventions
- Supragastric Belching And Acid Reflux Severity
- Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Diagnosis Using Nerve Ultrasonography
- IBD: A Link To Cancer And Infection
- Renal Transplant Risks With Prostate Cancer
- COPD Risk With Diabetes And Pre-Diabetes
- Urothelial Carcinoma – Uretal And Renal Pelvic Tumors
- Merkel Cell Carcinoma: A Case Of Metastasis To The Tonsils
- Infant Formula Protein Content And Childhood Obesity
- Maternal Migraines And Associated Pediatric Cancers
- Pediatric Neuroblastoma Diagnosis Using Urinary Catecholamine Metabolites
- Finerenone Therapy In CKD And Type 2 Diabetes
- Binge Eating Habits And Diabetic Implications
- Pain Intensity In Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies And Rheumatic Diseases
- Melanoma Diagnosis Without Biopsy
- Pediatric Opioids And Pain Control In Fractures
- Daikenchuto Treatment For Chronic Constipation
- Prenatal Gingivitis Prevalence In A Clinical Trial Exploring Oral Hygiene Education
- Autistic Adults: A Study On Cognitive Therapy Experiences
- The Impact Of Long-Term Opioid Treatment On Endocrine Parameters
- Skeletal Muscle Index And Ovarian Cancer Prognosis: A Meta-Analysis
- Diabetes Mellitus During The Pandemic
- Carfilzomib Therapy In Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
- Golimumab Compliance In Long-Term Arthritis Treatment
- Medullary Thyroid Cancer And Vocal Cord Paralysis
- Primary Adenocarcinoma Of The Orbit: A Case Study
- Survival Trends: Pancreatic Cancer in the USA
- Nusinersen Therapy For Pediatric Spinal Muscular Atrophy
- Pediatric Liver Transplantation: A New Biological Abdominal Wall
- Influenza Surveillance: A Review Of Data Sources
- Remission of Renal Cell Carcinoma With Brain Metastases: A Case Study
- Dry Eye Disease And Dehydration
- Macular Edema Therapy Using Dexamethasone Nanoparticle Suspension
- Colorectal Cancer Screening For Older Adults
- Satiation And Satiety: An Overview And Clinical Calculator
- Cholesterol Screening To Aid In Glaucoma Detection
- Hearing Screening After Chemotherapy: A Study On Childhood Cancer Survivors
- Olfactory Dysfunction and Screening For Depression: A QOL Study
- Cancer Diagnosis And Mental Health
- Mental Health Screening In Psoriatic Arthritis Patients
- Prostate Cancer: A New Biopsy Risk Calculator Using MRI
- Mental Health Study in Cancer Survivors
- Mental Health Screening In The Community
- Bone Mineral Density Screening Combined With Mammography
- Bone Mineral Density In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
- Cochlear Implants and Vestibular Screening
- Aprocitentan In Resistant Hypertension
- Predicting Cardiovascular Disease With Body Mass Index
- Obesity Screening To Predict Hot Flashes
- Hypertension Screening For Cardiovascular Health
- Dental Screening For Cardiovascular Disease Risk
- Blood Pressure and CVD Risk Reduction
- Lifestyle Changes For Hypoglycemia Prevention
- Ovarian Adenocarcinoma With Glaucoma: A Case Report
- Community Hypertension and Atherosclerosis Risk
- Thyroid Malignancy and Serum Calcitonin
- Rare Schwannoma In Lateral Nasal Wall
- Pyrotinib Therapy In HER2+ Breast Cancer
- Osteopenia Predicts Outcomes in Pancreatic Cancer
- Outcomes of Physical Exercise Regimens in Advanced Cancer
- Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma And HPV
- Radiation Therapy And VTE Risk
- Pseudouveitis With Pancreatic Carcinoma: A Case Study
- Cancer Prevention In Rural Communities
- Skeletal Muscle Mass and Cancer Patient Quality of Life: A Meta-Analysis
- Incidence of Secondary Cancers After CIRT VS RT
- Filanesib Combination Therapy in Multiple Myeloma
- Pediatric Leukemia Patients Utilizing Levofloxacin
- Breast Cancer And An Analysis Of Cardiovascular Events
- Monotherapy Or Chemotherapy Adjunct: Pembrolizumab in Advanced NSCLC
- Advanced Gastric Cancer: Prognosis with Nivolumab Monotherapy
- Sinonasal B‐Cell Lymphomas A Cohort Study On Progression And Recurrence
- Platinum Resistant Recurrent Ovarian Cancer Treatment+/-Bevacizumab
- Metastatic Melanoma and Follow-Up MRI Scans
- Isatuximab Treatment in Refractory T-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
- Ocular Melanoma and Treatment with Metformin
- Gastric Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
- Lung Cancer with Brain Metastasis After Late-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Case Report
- Anlotinib with Camrelizumab in Lung Cancer Treatment
- Sebaceous Carcinoma Treatment Outcomes: A Multicenter Study
- Diffuse-Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumors: Treatment and Progression
- Lung Spindle Cell Carcinoma Responsive to Pembrolizumab: A Rare Case Report
- DNA Methylation Profiling in Sarcoma Classification
- Breast Tomosynthesis Simulator For Virtual Clinical Trials
- Renal Cell Carcinoma-Prognosis Via Albumin Levels
- Diagnostic Error Causing Cases of Cytopenia
- Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: A Case Study With Nystagmus and Diplopia
- Brugada Syndrome Treated with Lenalidomide: A Case Study
- Koolen-de Vries Case Study
- Suicidal Ideation and Somatic Treatments
- Study on Pavlovian Fear Conditioning and Fear Reversal in OCD
- Anxiety Scales in Lewy Body Disease
- Inoperable Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Survival Rates of Endostar, CCRT
- Physician Practice Management and Private Equity
- Physician Spending And Its Association With Patient Outcomes
- Physician Burnout: Causes and Prevention
- LEAP-MS: Adaptations for Advanced Stages
- MS: Exercise Impacts on MRI
- The Role of Preretirement Job Complexity in Cognitive Performance
- Extrapontine Myelinolysis and PTA in Pregnancy
- Verbal Communication and Masks
- Sugammadex Versus Neostigmine in Thyroidectomy
- SGLT Inhibitors on Weight and Lipid Metabolism in Diabetes
- Saxagliptin: Obese Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance
- Levothyroxine Therapy and Depression
- Grave’s Disease and Risk of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
- Benign Thyroid Removal and Patient Satisfaction
- MF- Biology, Management, and a Case Study of Ocular Manifestation
- Quality Of Life In Adolescent Cancer Survivors
- Cancer Opioid Risk Score
- Oncology-Specific Opioid Risk Calculator In Cancer Survivors
- 3D MRI for Non-invasive Ocular Proton Therapy of Uveal Melanomas
- Sexual Dysfunction in Prostate Cancer Patients
- 3-Day Surprise Question To Predict Survival Rates in Advanced Cancer Patients