Binge Eating Habits And Diabetic Implications
This study was carried out to assess the prevalence and health outcomes associated with binge eating habits among adults suffering from diabetes mellitus. Data obtained from this study was assessed via an online survey from the diabetes MILES subsample in the Netherlands.
Binge eating prevalence was compared among diabetics (type 1 and 2), their treatment types, and health outcomes. Hierarchical analysis of linear regression was employed to evaluate the relationship between binge eating habits and physiological parameters in diabetics such as BMI and HbA1c.
308 (23%) people who participated in the study stated that they had binge eating habits, with 16% of them having these bouts of binge eating at least once monthly and 6% of them binge eating at least once weekly. The binge eating habits and prevalence did not significantly vary among type 1 and type 2 diabetics and their treatment regimens. Diabetics who were reported to have binge eating habits were noted to have higher scores in dietary restraint and higher BMI values. Type 1 diabetics particularly who binged were noted to have higher HbA1c levels.
Binge eating was shown to be independently related to higher BMI and HbA1c using hierarchical regression analysis.
This research demonstrated the association and effects of binge eating to eating styles, BMI and HbA1c.
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by a sustained rise in blood glucose or sugar levels above the normal threshold. In health, glucose metabolism is tightly regulated such that blood glucose level remains within normal limits irrespective of glucose intake. In diabetes mellitus, there is an abnormality in glucose metabolism which leads to inadequate glucose storage and excess glucose in blood circulation. On the basis of its etiology, diabetes mellitus is classified into several types, two of which are of importance in this study. The two types of diabetes covered in this study are type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is most common in younger people and is thought to be due to an autoimmune reaction that destroys the insulin-secreting beta cells of the pancreatic islet. Type 2 diabetes is seen more in overweight and older adults and is due to decreased sensitivity of the insulin receptors to insulin.
Binge eating can be defined as recurring episodes of uncontrollably consuming food in abnormally large quantities within a discrete time period and a feeling of lack of control. This is a condition where a person compulsively consumes abnormally large amounts of food and is unable to stop. It is usually categorized as a mental health disorder that over time can be life-threatening. Type 1 and 2 diabetics have been suggested to commonly come down with binge eating.
Diabetics have a higher risk of coming down with disordered eating behaviors (DEB) and eating disorders (ED) when compared with non diabetics. In diabetics, the prevalence of eating disorders diverge and may range from less than 5% to greater than 50%. The reason for this are the inconsistencies surrounding the definitions and study methodologies. Some variations in eating disorder types may be seen across the different types of diabetes, age group and gender of diabetics. Men with diabetes are less likely to develop eating disorders or binge eating compared to women with diabetes. Type 1 diabetics are most times noted to have disordered eating behaviors (DEB) via insulin restriction to affect weight.
The relationship between diabetes and binge eating has been hypothesized to be built on two mechanisms. Firstly, type 2 diabetics specifically were seen to have previous binge eating symptoms which were implicated in weight gain and subsequent diabetes risk. Secondly, a mechanism called ‘dieting dilemma’ demonstrated the effect of weight or carbohydrates awareness and dietary restraint on the eating habits of diabetics.
In the general population and among diabetics, binge eating has been shown to be related to a higher BMI. The relationship between blood glucose levels and binge eating has not been well understood. Furthermore, several studies have shown that binge eating is associated with psychological problems including depression or negative affect among diabetics and the general population.
The primary aim of this study was to assess the binge eating prevalence among a large sample of diabetic adults which allows for comparisons between type 2 and type 1 diabetes and their treatment regimens. Also, variations were evaluated between participants with binge eating habits and participants without, with respect to their eating styles, treatment regimens, current weight, BMI, health outcomes and associated psychological problems. Additionally, there was an assessment between binge eating, HbA1c levels, diabetes distress and BMI.
This study is part of a national survey on the psychosocial effect of diabetes in the Netherlands called Diabetes Management and Impact for Long Term Empowerment and Success (MILES). Participants were obtained via the Dutch diabetes and health related publicity channel, and was approved by the Tilburg University psychological research ethics committee in the Netherlands. Those who were able to completely answer the core set of questions for the study were assigned randomly to one out of five sections containing more targeted questions.
General questions using the DEBQ (Dutch eating behavior questionnaire) were used to assess binge eating habits. Three additional questions were included to assess the frequency of binges. Furthermore, diabetics who participated in this study were asked about the feeling of lack of control.
Participants who indicated that they had binges were placed in comparison with those who did not have binges based on their answers to the questionnaire given.
33 items in the DEBQ were used to assess eating styles like external eating (10), restrained eating (10) and emotional eating (13). External eating is eating provoked by food stimulus (e.g smell of food) despite being full. Restrained eating is the conscious restriction of food intake in order to manage weight. Emotional eating is eating provoked by emotions.
Data such as demographic profile, age, gender, height, weight (BMI), diabetes type, treatment regimen used, recent HbA1c and any recent hospitalizations or complications in the past year were documented. Questions on previous diagnosis of psychological problems such as depression, eating disorder, anxiety etc were used to assess any associated psychological problem. Those who have visited a psychiatrist or psychologist at least twice in the past year were categorized as ‘receiving psychological care’.
Depressive symptoms were assessed using PHQ-9 (9 item patient health questionnaire) likert scale. Anxiety symptoms were assessed using GAD-7 (7 item generalized anxiety disorder) likert scale. Diabetes distress was assessed using a 20 item diabetes scale problem area.
This study employed the use of SPSS version 23. Chi square tests were used to compare binge eating frequencies and loss of control among diabetics of different types.
Three subgroups of diabetics were created to assess the differences in the variables associated with diabetes. These subgroups include the type 1 diabetics, type 2 diabetics who are non-insulin treated and type 2 diabetics who are treated with insulin.
The BMI, eating styles, weight, health outcomes, treatment regimen and associated psychological issues were compared in each subgroup between diabetics who binge eat and those who do not. Bonferroni corrections were used for multiple testing. Cohen’s d and chi square tests were used to calculate effect sizes for independent sample t-tests.
Three separate hierarchical analyses of linear regression were used to examine the relationship between binge eating with diabetes distress, BMI and HbA1c as dependent variables.
A total of 1,1317 diabetics completed the DEBQ. Females constituted 55% of the participants, and had a mean age of 55 years, BMI of 28, diabetes duration of 16 years and glycosylated hemoglobin levels of 56 mmol/mol. 56% of participants had type 2 diabetes with 29% being treated with insulin and 72% not being treated with insulin. 61% of type 2 diabetics have no complications reported.
308 (28%) participants indicated that they had binge eating habits with 79 (6%) binge eating at least once weekly and 206 (16%) binge eating at least once monthly. Additionally, 215 (16%) of 308 of the participants also stated that they felt like they lost control while binge eating.
There were no significant differences in binge eating frequency and prevalence between diabetes types and treatment regimen.
Participants who stated that they binged were seen to have higher DEBQ scores on eating styles compared to people who did not binge eat. This observation had a small effect size of 0.1.
Females with type 1 or type 2 non insulin treated diabetes were more likely to binge eat. Type 1 diabetics who binge eat were mostly using insulin pumps compared to those who didn’t binge eat. This observation had a small effect size of 0.1.
Diabetics who binged were seen to have an increased rate of diabetic distress, depressive disorder diagnoses, antidepressant drug use and eating disorders.
Anxiety disorders were seen among type 1 diabetics in addition to eating disorders and are treated by a psychiatrist.
Using the hierarchical regression analysis, higher glycosylated hemoglobin levels and BMI were associated with diabetes.
Also, type 2 diabetes, female gender, higher PHQ-9 scores, higher PAID scores, higher GAD-7 scores and longer duration of diabetes were seen to be associated with higher BMI.
There was no significant relationship between diabetes distress and binge eating.
This study assessed the binge eating prevalence, its associations and health outcomes among diabetic Dutch adults based on the type of diabetes and treatment regimen involved.
A binge eating habits show a prevalence of 22-25%, as recorded among diabetics of both type 1 and 2.
Unlike previous studies, the reports from this study did not show the variations in the binge eating prevalence between type 1 and 2 diabetics.
This study is aimed to educate healthcare providers on the need to screen diabetic patients for eating disorders to enable early detection and management of eating disorders in diabetics.
Oncology Related Tools
- Prognostic Scoring for Myelofibrosis
- Opioid Conversion Calculator
- Updated Advanced Opioid Conversion Calculator
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) Selection Tool
- Absolute Neutrophil Count Calculator
- Body Surface Area (BSA) Multi-Calc
- Carboplatin AUC Calculator
- Carboplatin AUC – Updated Version
- Urinary Indices, Renal Failure Index (RFI) and Fractional Excretion of Sodium (FE-NA)
- Creatinine Clearance (CRCL) – Standard Calculator
- Creatinine Clearance Multi-Calc – All of the latest research
- Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) Settings
- Intravenous Antineoplastic Agents – Administration Guidelines
- Therapeutic Drug Levels
- Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medications
- Allergic response? 12-step desensitization protocol
- Protein requirements calculator
- Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Multi-calc (Estimate caloric requirements)
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment Options
- Common Anti-emetics
- Fall Assessment – Berg Balance Scale
- Pain Intensity In Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies And Rheumatic Diseases
- Melanoma Diagnosis Without Biopsy
- Pediatric Opioids And Pain Control In Fractures
- Daikenchuto Treatment For Chronic Constipation
- Prenatal Gingivitis Prevalence In A Clinical Trial Exploring Oral Hygiene Education
- Autistic Adults: A Study On Cognitive Therapy Experiences
- The Impact Of Long-Term Opioid Treatment On Endocrine Parameters
- Skeletal Muscle Index And Ovarian Cancer Prognosis: A Meta-Analysis
- Diabetes Mellitus During The Pandemic
- Carfilzomib Therapy In Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
- Golimumab Compliance In Long-Term Arthritis Treatment
- Medullary Thyroid Cancer And Vocal Cord Paralysis
- Primary Adenocarcinoma Of The Orbit: A Case Study
- Survival Trends: Pancreatic Cancer in the USA
- Nusinersen Therapy For Pediatric Spinal Muscular Atrophy
- Pediatric Liver Transplantation: A New Biological Abdominal Wall
- Influenza Surveillance: A Review Of Data Sources
- Remission of Renal Cell Carcinoma With Brain Metastases: A Case Study
- Dry Eye Disease And Dehydration
- Macular Edema Therapy Using Dexamethasone Nanoparticle Suspension
- Colorectal Cancer Screening For Older Adults
- Satiation And Satiety: An Overview And Clinical Calculator
- Cholesterol Screening To Aid In Glaucoma Detection
- Hearing Screening After Chemotherapy: A Study On Childhood Cancer Survivors
- Olfactory Dysfunction and Screening For Depression: A QOL Study
- Cancer Diagnosis And Mental Health
- Mental Health Screening In Psoriatic Arthritis Patients
- Prostate Cancer: A New Biopsy Risk Calculator Using MRI
- Mental Health Study in Cancer Survivors
- Mental Health Screening In The Community
- Bone Mineral Density Screening Combined With Mammography
- Bone Mineral Density In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
- Cochlear Implants and Vestibular Screening
- Aprocitentan In Resistant Hypertension
- Predicting Cardiovascular Disease With Body Mass Index
- Obesity Screening To Predict Hot Flashes
- Hypertension Screening For Cardiovascular Health
- Dental Screening For Cardiovascular Disease Risk
- Blood Pressure and CVD Risk Reduction
- Lifestyle Changes For Hypoglycemia Prevention
- Ovarian Adenocarcinoma With Glaucoma: A Case Report
- Community Hypertension and Atherosclerosis Risk
- Thyroid Malignancy and Serum Calcitonin
- Rare Schwannoma In Lateral Nasal Wall
- Pyrotinib Therapy In HER2+ Breast Cancer
- Osteopenia Predicts Outcomes in Pancreatic Cancer
- Outcomes of Physical Exercise Regimens in Advanced Cancer
- Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma And HPV
- Radiation Therapy And VTE Risk
- Pseudouveitis With Pancreatic Carcinoma: A Case Study
- Cancer Prevention In Rural Communities
- Skeletal Muscle Mass and Cancer Patient Quality of Life: A Meta-Analysis
- Incidence of Secondary Cancers After CIRT VS RT
- Filanesib Combination Therapy in Multiple Myeloma
- Pediatric Leukemia Patients Utilizing Levofloxacin
- Breast Cancer And An Analysis Of Cardiovascular Events
- Monotherapy Or Chemotherapy Adjunct: Pembrolizumab in Advanced NSCLC
- Advanced Gastric Cancer: Prognosis with Nivolumab Monotherapy
- Sinonasal B‐Cell Lymphomas A Cohort Study On Progression And Recurrence
- Platinum Resistant Recurrent Ovarian Cancer Treatment+/-Bevacizumab
- Metastatic Melanoma and Follow-Up MRI Scans
- Isatuximab Treatment in Refractory T-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
- Ocular Melanoma and Treatment with Metformin
- Gastric Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
- Lung Cancer with Brain Metastasis After Late-Onset Bipolar Disorder: A Case Report
- Anlotinib with Camrelizumab in Lung Cancer Treatment
- Sebaceous Carcinoma Treatment Outcomes: A Multicenter Study
- Diffuse-Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumors: Treatment and Progression
- Lung Spindle Cell Carcinoma Responsive to Pembrolizumab: A Rare Case Report
- DNA Methylation Profiling in Sarcoma Classification
- Breast Tomosynthesis Simulator For Virtual Clinical Trials
- Renal Cell Carcinoma-Prognosis Via Albumin Levels
- Diagnostic Error Causing Cases of Cytopenia
- Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: A Case Study With Nystagmus and Diplopia
- Brugada Syndrome Treated with Lenalidomide: A Case Study
- Koolen-de Vries Case Study
- Suicidal Ideation and Somatic Treatments
- Study on Pavlovian Fear Conditioning and Fear Reversal in OCD
- Anxiety Scales in Lewy Body Disease
- Inoperable Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Survival Rates of Endostar, CCRT
- Physician Practice Management and Private Equity
- Physician Spending And Its Association With Patient Outcomes
- Physician Burnout: Causes and Prevention
- LEAP-MS: Adaptations for Advanced Stages
- MS: Exercise Impacts on MRI
- The Role of Preretirement Job Complexity in Cognitive Performance
- Extrapontine Myelinolysis and PTA in Pregnancy
- Verbal Communication and Masks
- Sugammadex Versus Neostigmine in Thyroidectomy
- SGLT Inhibitors on Weight and Lipid Metabolism in Diabetes
- Saxagliptin: Obese Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance
- Levothyroxine Therapy and Depression
- Grave’s Disease and Risk of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
- Benign Thyroid Removal and Patient Satisfaction
- MF- Biology, Management, and a Case Study of Ocular Manifestation
- Quality Of Life In Adolescent Cancer Survivors
- Cancer Opioid Risk Score
- Oncology-Specific Opioid Risk Calculator In Cancer Survivors
- 3D MRI for Non-invasive Ocular Proton Therapy of Uveal Melanomas
- Sexual Dysfunction in Prostate Cancer Patients
- 3-Day Surprise Question To Predict Survival Rates in Advanced Cancer Patients