Maternal Migraines And Associated Pediatric Cancers
Maternal migraines are seen to be associated with unfavorable birth outcomes such as congenital malformations in babies, preterm births and infant low birth weight. It has been hypothesized that these unfavorable or adverse birth outcomes may be due to the intake of certain medications during pregnancy, in addition to genetics, hormonal effects, lifestyle and neurochemical factors.
There is sufficient evidence backing the incidence of cancers among adults suffering from migraines. In this study, we examined the association or link between the risk of cancer in offspring and maternal diagnosis of migraines using data obtained from the Denmark national registries.
Several cases were identified by the Cancer Registry among patients aged below 20 years diagnosed with cancer between the years 1996 to 2016. The control group was obtained from the Central Population Register, and participants were matched based on their sex and year of birth to cases.
Mothers who had a diagnosis of migraines were identified using the International Classification of Diseases from the National Patient Register. In the National Pharmaceutical Register versions 8 and 10, migraine prophylactic or acute treatment were recorded and used for this study.
Logistic regression was used to assess the risk of childhood malignancies in relation to maternal migraines.
Maternal migraines were seen to have a positive association with increased risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, osteosarcoma and central nervous system tumors such as gliomas.
Several pediatric cancers such as neuronal tumors were assessed to determine their association with maternal migraines. Other possible associations of note include genetics, lifestyle factors, hormonal factors and neurochemical factors are seen to play a role in the correlation between maternal migraines and pediatric cancers.
Migraine is a neurologic disorder commonly affecting adults within the age of childbearing. It affects 10% to 25% of Danish females within reproductive age, i.e. from the age of adolescence to age of menopause (40 years). Migraines were also seen to occur in 9% of Danish children irrespective of their gender. The frequency and prevalence of migraines in women is notably influenced by hormonal factors. Migraine prevalence dramatically rises with onset of menstruation (menarche) and reduces notably following menopause. The frequency of migraines varies at different phases of the menstrual cycle and decreases with pregnancy.
Women who suffer from maternal migraines are most likely smokers and at a higher risk of obesity compared to women who do not have migraines. Comorbidities like asthma, allergies, hypertension and other cardiovascular pathologies were seen to have a higher prevalence among people with migraines.
Maternal migraines have been seen to affect pregnancies as it is closely linked to adverse birth outcomes such as prematurity and low birth weight. Also, congenital anomalies have been linked to migraines and are speculated to be as a result of medical therapy during pregnancy. Furthermore, maternal migraines have been shown to be associated with complications during pregnancy such as severe vomiting and nausea and preeclampsia. In certain studies, these factors were shown to be associated with an increased risk of pediatric cancer.
Maternal migraines were shown to be related to some pediatric disorders such as psychiatric disorders, asthma and colic.
On the contrary, migraines reduces alcohol intake due to the fact that alcohol triggers migraine attacks, and as such, may reduce pediatric cancer related to alcohol intake in their offspring. There is a reduced risk of progesterone-receptor positive and estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer among women who suffer from migraines, which further buttresses the effect of hormones on migraines. Several hypotheses which aimed to link hormone levels to the risk of pediatric cancers were targeted on osteosarcoma and germ cell tumors. Estrogen mediates the effect of androgens on skeletal maturation, pubertal growth, and bone mass. Additionally, estrogen also induces apoptosis of osteoclasts. In an animal study involving mice, administration of estrogen led to the formation of testicular cancer.
Higher estriol levels were seen to increase the risk of testicular germ cell tumors in early childhood as seen in a Californian study of pediatric testicular tumors and newborn hormone levels. Also, the study showed that the effects of androgen and estriol varied based on age as there was a decreased risk of cancer in adolescence compared to early childhood.
Children of mothers suffering from maternal migraines were noted to have a higher incidence of central nervous system tumors and other cancers as seen in two studies.
Children with neurofibromatosis 1 were also reported to have a higher incidence of migraines. Neurofibromatosis is a disease of genetic origin which sets the stage for other pediatric cancers such as optic pathway glioma and rhabdomyosarcoma.
Migraines, as demonstrated by a study in Denmark, were seen to be increased among pediatric cancer survivors. However, some authors reported that this statistic may have been due to the effects of increased medical surveillance and therapies.
The human subjects protection boards of the Danish Data Protection Agency, the University of North Texas and University of California, Los Angeles gave approval for this study. Data for this study was obtained from the Cancer Registry which involved patients aged below 20 years and diagnosed between the years 1996 to 2016. Data on the diagnoses of migraines were obtained from the Danish extended version of the National Patient Register using International Classification of Disease with ICD-10 coding established in 1993, following the previous International Classification of Disease version 8 (ICD-8).
28 cancer patients were recruited from the Cancer Registry. The cancer patients recruited for this study were linked to healthy controls obtained from the Central Population Register via a unique identification code which was given to all residents since the year 1968. This identification code provided information such as details of the parents of each child and their demographic information. These controls were matched to cancer patients on the basis of their age, sex and birth date with a 25:1 matching rate. These controls were selected randomly from the Central Population Register. Their files were then linked to the Medical Births Registry to report information on their gestational period, the National Pharmaceutical Register for information on their drug prescriptions and the National Patient register to obtain information on their medical conditions. Patients with migraine were also identified by their prescriptions of migraine specific prophylactic or acute treatment medications. The link or relationship between maternal migraines and migraines in their offspring was assessed as headaches may be an early sign of a tumor. A lagged analysis could not be carried out owing to the small sample size of 9 children diagnosed with migraines at least a year before their cancer diagnosis.
In this study, the association of migraines with other cancers was assessed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk of pediatric cancer related to maternal migraines.
Children included in the study were born in Denmark to ensure that detailed and accurate information is gotten with regards to their gestation and birth.
Mothers suffering from maternal migraines were seen to be younger in age and likely to have been born in Denmark when compared to mothers who do not have migraines.
Mothers with migraines were seen to most likely have a history of epilepsy or asthma, with a majority likely having a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease during or prior to the index pregnancy.
4% of children with congenital malformations had mothers with a history of suffering from maternal migraines.
Maternal migraines were seen in the logistic regression analysis to be positively linked with an increased risk of central nervous system tumors especially gliomas and neuroblastomas, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and osteosarcoma. Some leukemias and retinoblastoma also exhibited an elevated point estimate with wide confidence intervals.
Differences in the cancer risk in offspring of mothers suffering from migraine who take and who do not take medications was not considered when stratifying mothers suffering from migraine via their use of migraine-specific medications.
This study is one of the first to assess the relationship between a diagnosis of maternal migraines and the risk of pediatric cancers. Increases in the prevalence of osteosarcoma was observed to be associated with a maternal migraines diagnosis. Higher risk of pediatric central nervous system tumors, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and neuroblastoma were seen to be related to a maternal migraines diagnosis in exploratory analysis.
Childhood cancer survivors were seen to have increased migraine rates in a study in Denmark. However, considering that headache is a common sign of tumors, it is not clear if migraines led to the tumor or if the tumor led to the migraines. Hormones were also hypothesized to be a migraine trigger. Females with maternal migraines were seen to have higher levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone, low testosterone levels and higher prolactin levels (which may further lower estrogen levels) throughout their menstrual cycle compared with controls. In the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, estrogen levels are higher than that of controls compared with cases, while in the luteal phase, estrogen levels are lower than that of controls. Lower estrogen levels were associated with higher severity of migraine.
Oncology Related Tools
- Prognostic Scoring for Myelofibrosis
- Opioid Conversion Calculator
- Updated Advanced Opioid Conversion Calculator
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) Selection Tool
- Absolute Neutrophil Count Calculator
- Body Surface Area (BSA) Multi-Calc
- Carboplatin AUC Calculator
- Carboplatin AUC – Updated Version
- Urinary Indices, Renal Failure Index (RFI) and Fractional Excretion of Sodium (FE-NA)
- Creatinine Clearance (CRCL) – Standard Calculator
- Creatinine Clearance Multi-Calc – All of the latest research
- Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) Settings
- Intravenous Antineoplastic Agents – Administration Guidelines
- Therapeutic Drug Levels
- Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medications
- Allergic response? 12-step desensitization protocol
- Protein requirements calculator
- Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Multi-calc (Estimate caloric requirements)
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment Options
- Common Anti-emetics
- Fall Assessment – Berg Balance Scale
- Pediatric Neuroblastoma Diagnosis Using Urinary Catecholamine Metabolites
- Finerenone Therapy In CKD And Type 2 Diabetes
- Binge Eating Habits And Diabetic Implications
- Pain Intensity In Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies And Rheumatic Diseases
- Melanoma Diagnosis Without Biopsy
- Pediatric Opioids And Pain Control In Fractures
- Daikenchuto Treatment For Chronic Constipation
- Prenatal Gingivitis Prevalence In A Clinical Trial Exploring Oral Hygiene Education
- Autistic Adults: A Study On Cognitive Therapy Experiences
- The Impact Of Long-Term Opioid Treatment On Endocrine Parameters
- Skeletal Muscle Index And Ovarian Cancer Prognosis: A Meta-Analysis
- Diabetes Mellitus During The Pandemic
- Carfilzomib Therapy In Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
- Golimumab Compliance In Long-Term Arthritis Treatment
- Medullary Thyroid Cancer And Vocal Cord Paralysis
- Primary Adenocarcinoma Of The Orbit: A Case Study
- Survival Trends: Pancreatic Cancer in the USA
- Nusinersen Therapy For Pediatric Spinal Muscular Atrophy
- Pediatric Liver Transplantation: A New Biological Abdominal Wall
- Influenza Surveillance: A Review Of Data Sources
- Remission of Renal Cell Carcinoma With Brain Metastases: A Case Study
- Dry Eye Disease And Dehydration
- Macular Edema Therapy Using Dexamethasone Nanoparticle Suspension
- Colorectal Cancer Screening For Older Adults
- Satiation And Satiety: An Overview And Clinical Calculator
- Cholesterol Screening To Aid In Glaucoma Detection
- Hearing Screening After Chemotherapy: A Study On Childhood Cancer Survivors
- Olfactory Dysfunction and Screening For Depression: A QOL Study
- Cancer Diagnosis And Mental Health
- Mental Health Screening In Psoriatic Arthritis Patients
- Prostate Cancer: A New Biopsy Risk Calculator Using MRI
- Mental Health Study in Cancer Survivors
- Mental Health Screening In The Community
- Bone Mineral Density Screening Combined With Mammography
- Bone Mineral Density In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
- Cochlear Implants and Vestibular Screening
- Aprocitentan In Resistant Hypertension
- Predicting Cardiovascular Disease With Body Mass Index
- Obesity Screening To Predict Hot Flashes
- Hypertension Screening For Cardiovascular Health
- Dental Screening For Cardiovascular Disease Risk
- Blood Pressure and CVD Risk Reduction
- Lifestyle Changes For Hypoglycemia Prevention
- Ovarian Adenocarcinoma With Glaucoma: A Case Report
- Community Hypertension and Atherosclerosis Risk
- Thyroid Malignancy and Serum Calcitonin
- Rare Schwannoma In Lateral Nasal Wall
- Pyrotinib Therapy In HER2+ Breast Cancer
- Osteopenia Predicts Outcomes in Pancreatic Cancer
- Outcomes of Physical Exercise Regimens in Advanced Cancer
- Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma And HPV
- Radiation Therapy And VTE Risk
- Pseudouveitis With Pancreatic Carcinoma: A Case Study
- Cancer Prevention In Rural Communities
- Skeletal Muscle Mass and Cancer Patient Quality of Life: A Meta-Analysis
- Incidence of Secondary Cancers After CIRT VS RT
- Filanesib Combination Therapy in Multiple Myeloma
- Pediatric Leukemia Patients Utilizing Levofloxacin
- Breast Cancer And An Analysis Of Cardiovascular Events
- Monotherapy Or Chemotherapy Adjunct: Pembrolizumab in Advanced NSCLC
- Advanced Gastric Cancer: Prognosis with Nivolumab Monotherapy
- Sinonasal B‐Cell Lymphomas A Cohort Study On Progression And Recurrence
- Platinum Resistant Recurrent Ovarian Cancer Treatment+/-Bevacizumab
- Metastatic Melanoma and Follow-Up MRI Scans
- Isatuximab Treatment in Refractory T-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
- Ocular Melanoma and Treatment with Metformin
- Gastric Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
- Lung Cancer with Brain Metastasis After Late-Onset Bipolar Disorder: A Case Report
- Anlotinib with Camrelizumab in Lung Cancer Treatment
- Sebaceous Carcinoma Treatment Outcomes: A Multicenter Study
- Diffuse-Type Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumors: Treatment and Progression
- Lung Spindle Cell Carcinoma Responsive to Pembrolizumab: A Rare Case Report
- DNA Methylation Profiling in Sarcoma Classification
- Breast Tomosynthesis Simulator For Virtual Clinical Trials
- Renal Cell Carcinoma-Prognosis Via Albumin Levels
- Diagnostic Error Causing Cases of Cytopenia
- Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: A Case Study With Nystagmus and Diplopia
- Brugada Syndrome Treated with Lenalidomide: A Case Study
- Koolen-de Vries Case Study
- Suicidal Ideation and Somatic Treatments
- Study on Pavlovian Fear Conditioning and Fear Reversal in OCD
- Anxiety Scales in Lewy Body Disease
- Inoperable Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Survival Rates of Endostar, CCRT
- Physician Practice Management and Private Equity
- Physician Spending And Its Association With Patient Outcomes
- Physician Burnout: Causes and Prevention
- LEAP-MS: Adaptations for Advanced Stages
- MS: Exercise Impacts on MRI
- The Role of Preretirement Job Complexity in Cognitive Performance
- Extrapontine Myelinolysis and PTA in Pregnancy
- Verbal Communication and Masks
- Sugammadex Versus Neostigmine in Thyroidectomy
- SGLT Inhibitors on Weight and Lipid Metabolism in Diabetes
- Saxagliptin: Obese Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance
- Levothyroxine Therapy and Depression
- Grave’s Disease and Risk of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
- Benign Thyroid Removal and Patient Satisfaction
- MF- Biology, Management, and a Case Study of Ocular Manifestation
- Quality Of Life In Adolescent Cancer Survivors
- Cancer Opioid Risk Score
- Oncology-Specific Opioid Risk Calculator In Cancer Survivors
- 3D MRI for Non-invasive Ocular Proton Therapy of Uveal Melanomas
- Sexual Dysfunction in Prostate Cancer Patients
- 3-Day Surprise Question To Predict Survival Rates in Advanced Cancer Patients