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Remimazolam: The Greatest New Medication In Anesthesia?

Remimazolam: The Greatest New Medication In Anesthesia?

This research introduces remimazolam, a novel intravenous anesthetic that improves anesthesia quality, particularly in procedures like transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Remimazolam offers advantages such as smooth administration, stable circulatory dynamics, and shorter half-life compared to traditional benzodiazepines. The study investigates remimazolam’s potential anti-inflammatory effects due to its antioxidant properties. It hopes to contribute valuable insights into anesthesia practices and patient outcomes postoperatively.



The research background delves into the development and potential of remimazolam, an intravenous anesthetic with promising attributes for enhancing anesthesia quality and patient outcomes. Remimazolam’s mechanism of action lies in its selective binding to benzodiazepine receptors. It offers high affinity coupled with a notably short duration of action [1]. These pharmacological characteristics suggest its potential to improve anesthesia administration by circumventing issues such as vascular pain during intravenous delivery and maintaining stable circulatory dynamics [1]. Additionally, remimazolam’s unique profile includes compatibility with competitive antagonists and hydrolysis by tissue esterases, highlighting its advantages over conventional benzodiazepines [1].

The study extends beyond procedural considerations to investigate the broader implications of anesthetic choice, particularly about immune function and inflammatory responses. Prior research indicates that anesthetics, including intravenous agents, can modulate immune responses, potentially influencing outcomes following surgical interventions [2-4]. Agents like dexmedetomidine and midazolam have demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects through receptor-mediated pathways [5-7]. While these effects have primarily been observed in vitro, they underscore the complex interplay between anesthesia, inflammation, and oxidative stress [8,9].

The research addresses gaps in understanding regarding remimazolam’s potential anti-inflammatory properties and its impact on postoperative immune responses. By employing a combination of laboratory investigations and clinical assessments, the study seeks to elucidate the antioxidant properties of remimazolam and its role in mitigating postoperative inflammation [1]. Through electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and blood sampling in TAVR patients, the research aims to provide insights into remimazolam’s mechanisms of action and its potential to improve patient outcomes in anesthesia and surgical interventions [1].



The study employed a dual approach of laboratory and clinical studies to investigate remimazolam’s antioxidant properties and potential anti-inflammatory effects in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). In the laboratory study, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was utilized to evaluate the scavenging activities of reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly the hydroxyl radical (OH•) generated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) + ultraviolet (UV) system. Remimazolam and dexmedetomidine were subjected to analysis, with spectral intensity measurements recorded and analyzed using specialized software. The clinical study, which was conducted retrospectively, involved the examination of electronic medical records of 143 patients who underwent transfemoral TAVR at Kindai University Hospital between April 2021 and December 2022. Patient data were collected for analysis, including preoperative and postoperative markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and white blood cell (WBC) counts.

Anesthesia protocols varied between the two groups in the clinical study: the R group received remimazolam, while the D group received dexmedetomidine. Detailed dosages and administration procedures were outlined for each group, with continuous monitoring of vital signs during the procedures. Outcome measures included assessing antioxidant effects using ESR in the laboratory setting and secondary endpoints such as preoperative and postoperative inflammatory markers (CRP levels and WBC counts) collected on postoperative days 1 and 3 for comparison. Through this comprehensive methodology, the research aims to elucidate the potential anti-inflammatory effects of remimazolam and contribute valuable insights into its role in modulating the immune response in TAVR patients.



The research analysis was conducted using GraphPad Prism 9.5.1 software, where data obtained from the study were presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Between-group differences were assessed using either paired or unpaired Student’s t-test, depending on the type of the comparison. Additionally, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) or repeated measures ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni multiple comparisons test was employed where applicable to analyze differences among various groups or across different time points. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies. Also, between-group differences were evaluated using the chi-square test.

The significance level was p < .05, indicating a statistically significant difference. All p-values were two-sided, ensuring a comprehensive examination of the data. Through these statistical analyses, the research aimed to rigorously assess and compare various parameters, such as antioxidant effects, inflammatory markers, and other relevant variables, to provide robust insights into the potential impact of remimazolam in TAVR patients.



Laboratory Study: Measurement of ROS‐scavenging activities of anesthetic drugs by ESR

  – Both remimazolam (Anerem®) and dexmedetomidine (Precedex®) demonstrated concentration-dependent scavenging of hydroxyl radicals (OH•). 

  – Remimazolam exhibited more excellent scavenging capability than dexmedetomidine at clinical concentrations.

Clinical Study: Patient demographics

  – Patients were categorized into the R (remimazolam) and D (dexmedetomidine) groups (63 and 28 patients, respectively) based on the anesthesia agent used.

  – No substantial differences were observed in age, sex, BMI, duration of operation, or duration of anesthesia between the R and D groups. However, the remifentanil dose was significantly higher in the R group compared to the D group.

Inflammatory response during the perioperative period

  – Both groups showed a significant increase in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on postoperative days (POD) 1 and 3 compared to preoperative levels. 

  – On POD3, the R group exhibited significantly lower CRP levels than the D group.

  – White blood cell (WBC) counts significantly increased on POD1 and decreased on POD3 in both groups, with no significant differences between the R and D groups observed at any time.

Through this analysis, remimazolam demonstrated promising ROS-scavenging activity in the laboratory study. In contrast, in the clinical research, remimazolam and dexmedetomidine were associated with similar perioperative inflammatory responses in TAVR patients.



The discussion delves into the intricate relationship between oxidative stress, inflammation, and the mechanisms of action of the anesthetic agents remimazolam and dexmedetomidine [1]. The study’s findings revealed notable differences in their effects on postoperative inflammatory responses, shedding light on the potential role of antioxidative properties in modulating these processes [1]. Remimazolam exhibited significant scavenging of hydroxyl radicals (OH•) in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting its ability to mitigate oxidative stress [1]. This antioxidative activity may contribute to its observed reduction in postoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on POD3 compared to dexmedetomidine [1].

The observed differences in CRP levels between the remimazolam and dexmedetomidine groups highlight the potential association between antioxidative properties and anti-inflammatory effects [1]. The study postulated that remimazolam’s OH• scavenging activity could suppress CRP production, underscoring the intricate interplay between oxidative stress and inflammatory responses [1]. This finding underscores the multifaceted mechanisms through which different anesthetic agents modulate inflammatory processes, with remimazolam’s antioxidative effects potentially offering additional benefits in attenuating postoperative inflammation [1].

Contrasting with remimazolam, dexmedetomidine’s anti-inflammatory effects were not attributed to its antioxidative properties [1]. While dexmedetomidine has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects through changes in cytokine production, its mechanism of action appears to be distinct from remimazolam’s antioxidative pathways [1]. This distinction highlights the complexity of anesthesia management and the importance of considering different agents’ specific mechanisms of action in influencing perioperative inflammatory responses [1].

The study’s findings contribute to a more profound understanding of the impact of anesthetic choice on postoperative outcomes, particularly inflammation [1]. By elucidating the antioxidative properties of remimazolam and its potential implications for reducing postoperative inflammation, the research underscores the importance of considering antioxidative mechanisms in anesthesia management strategies [1]. Further research is warranted to explore these findings’ clinical significance and elucidate the broader implications for perioperative care and patient outcomes [1].



  1. Retrospective Analysis: The study’s retrospective nature limited the depth of data available for assessing the inflammatory response, relying solely on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and white blood cell (WBC) counts for evaluation.
  2. Timing of Blood Samples: Blood samples were only available on postoperative days (POD) 1 and POD3, whereas previous studies in related fields have shown peak CRP levels on POD2 after specific surgical procedures, potentially missing critical time points for assessment.
  3. Commercialized Anesthetic Drugs: The use of commercialized anesthetic drugs, such as Anerem® (remimazolam) and Precedex® (dexmedetomidine), introduces potential confounding factors due to the presence of additives like lactose hydrate and sodium chloride, which could influence study outcomes.
  4. Maximum Concentration of Dexmedetomidine: Dexmedetomidine (Precedex®) was used at the maximum concentration for clinical use, potentially overlooking antioxidant effects that may be present at higher concentrations not typically encountered in clinical settings. 
  5. Unknown Additive Effects:  The additives present in the commercial formulations of remimazolam and dexmedetomidine may have exerted additional effects not accounted for in the study, complicating the interpretation of results and potentially introducing bias.

Addressing these limitations in future studies could enhance the understanding of the antioxidative properties of anesthetic drugs and their impact on postoperative inflammatory responses.


Remimazolam (Anerem®) demonstrates comparable inhibition of C-reactive protein (CRP) production to dexmedetomidine (Precedex®), known for its anti-inflammatory activity. While remimazolam’s anti-inflammatory effect may be linked to enhanced antioxidant activity, dexmedetomidine’s anti-inflammatory properties appear independent of antioxidative effects. Both agents promise to manage postoperative inflammation, with remimazolam potentially offering added benefits through its antioxidative properties. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding anesthetic mechanisms in perioperative care.



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