Campylobacter

Background:

—————————————————
Other   (Gram Negative Bacilli)  
—————————————————
>Aeromonas species:
     1] Aeromonas hydrophila
     2] Aeromonas veronii
     3] Aeromonas shubertii
>Bartonella species:
     1] Bartonella bacilliformis
     2] Bartonella henselae (organism responsible for cat scratch disease)
     3] Bartonella Quintana
     4] Other
>Campylobacter: led
     1] Campylobacter fetus
     2] Campylobacter jejuni
>Capnocytophaga species:
     1] Capnocytophaga canimorsus
     2] Capnocytophaga ochracea
>Francisella tularensis
>Helicobacter pylori
>Legionella species: ( L. pneumophila)
>Plesiomonas shigelloides
>Vibrio species:
     1] Vibrio cholera
     2] Vibrio parahaemolyticus
     3] Vibrio damsela
     4] Other

Campylobacter:  

  • Gram-negative, spiral (characteristic spiral/corkscrew appearance), motile and microaerophilic.
  • Oxidase-positive. 
  • Campylobacter jejuni: main cause of bacterial foodborne disease in many developed countries. 
  • Usual routes of transmission are fecal-oral, ingestion of contaminated food or water, and the eating of raw meat. 
  • Symptoms:  inflammatory, sometimes bloody, diarrhea, or dysentery syndrome. 
  • Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campylobacter

top of page

Therapy:

Important considerations:  The choice of an agent should be based on local antimicrobial sensitivities, site of infection, cost, and comorbid conditions.   Generally, the most common agents/regimens are listed first.   Listed dosages may need to be adjusted for renal dysfunction.  

Campylobacter fetus (Non-jejuni infections):
Infections are usually self-limited and antibiotics are rarely needed unless symptoms persist for more than 7-10 days.

  1. Limited to gastrointestinal tract / mild-moderate cases:
  2. Infections extending beyond the GI tract:
    • Ceftriaxone 1-2 grams IV q24h  (range: 1-2 grams q12-24h)
    • Ampicillin 1-2 grams IV every 4-6 hours
    • Gentamicin 5 mg/kg/day IV  (Adjust frequency based on estimated clearance)
    • Imipenem 500mg IV every 6 hours [Range: 250-1000 mg q6-8h]

 

Campylobacter jejuni:  Infections are usually self-limited and antibiotics are rarely needed unless severe disease is present.

  1. Gastroenteritis:
    • Erythromycin 500mg orally four times daily x 5 days.
    • Azithromycin 500mg orally once daily
    • Ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally q12h x 5 days (increasing resistance)
    • Gentamicin 5 mg/kg/day IV  (Adjust frequency based on estimated clearance)
    • Imipenem 500mg IV every 6 hours [Range: 250-1000 mg q6-8h]
    • Chloramphenicol 50-100 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 6 hours (Maximum daily dose is 4 grams e.g. 1 gram q6h)

 

Disclaimer

The authors make no claims of the accuracy of the information contained herein; and these suggested doses are not a substitute for clinical judgment. Neither GlobalRPh Inc. nor any other party involved in the preparation of this program shall be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting in whole or part from any user’s use of or reliance upon this material.PLEASE READ THE DISCLAIMER CAREFULLY BEFORE ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE. BY ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE, YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS SET FORTH IN THE DISCLAIMER. Read the disclaimer