Vibrio species

Background:

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Other   (Gram Negative Bacilli)  
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>Aeromonas species:
     1] Aeromonas hydrophila
     2] Aeromonas veronii
     3] Aeromonas shubertii
>Bartonella species:
     1] Bartonella bacilliformis
     2] Bartonella henselae (organism responsible for cat scratch disease)
     3] Bartonella Quintana
     4] Other
>Campylobacter:
     1] Campylobacter fetus
     2] Campylobacter jejuni
>Capnocytophaga species:
     1] Capnocytophaga canimorsus
     2] Capnocytophaga ochracea
>Francisella tularensis
>Helicobacter pylori
>Legionella species: ( L. pneumophila)
>Plesiomonas shigelloides
>Vibrio species: led
     1] Vibrio cholera
     2] Vibrio parahaemolyticus
     3] Vibrio damsela
     4] Vibrio vulnificus
     5] Others

Vibrio sepcies:  

  • Gram-negative bacteria with a curved rod shape (motile with polar flagella). 
  • Facultative anaerobes that test positive for oxidase. 
  • Non-spore forming. 
  • Several species are pathogenic and are frequently linked to foodborne infection
  • – gastroenteritis (usually associated with eating undercooked seafood).
  • V. cholerae (the causative agent of cholera). 

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Therapy:

Important considerations:  The choice of an agent should be based on local antimicrobial sensitivities, site of infection, cost, and comorbid conditions.   Generally, the most common agents/regimens are listed first. Listed dosages may need to be adjusted for renal dysfunction.  

Vibrio cholera:

  1. Doxycycline 300 mg orally x 1  (single dose).  [Effective as Tetracycline 500mg q6h x 3 days based on stool output, duration of diarrhea, hydration requirements, etc.]
  2. Azithromycin 1 gram orally x 1  OR  500mg orally once daily for 3 days.
  3. Erythromycin 250-500 mg orally three times daily for x 3 days
  4. Ciprofloxacin 1 gram (single dose). Other regimens listed. Not as effective as agents listed above.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus:

  1. Doxycycline 100mg orally or IV twice daily x 5 to 7 days
  2. Azithromycin 500mg orally once daily for 3 days.
  3. Ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally q12h x 3 days
  4. Patients with severe infections e.g. septicemia or wound infections- may require at least 2 weeks of therapy:
    • Doxycycline 100mg orally or IV twice daily PLUS
       [ Cefotaxime 2 grams IV q8h  OR  Ceftriaxone 1-2 grams IV q24h ]

Vibrio damsela, vulnificus:

  1. Doxycycline 100mg orally or IV twice daily  PLUS   Cefotaxime 2 grams IV q8h  OR Ceftriaxone 1-2 grams IV q24h
  2. Minocycline 200 mg x 1 (IV or oral),  followed by 100mg q12h  PLUS 
        Cefotaxime 1-2 grams IV q8h  (Life-threatening: 2 grams IV q4h)
  3. Levofloxacin 500mg – 750 mg IV/PO once daily

Disclaimer

The authors make no claims of the accuracy of the information contained herein; and these suggested doses are not a substitute for clinical judgment. Neither GlobalRPh Inc. nor any other party involved in the preparation of this program shall be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting in whole or part from any user’s use of or reliance upon this material.PLEASE READ THE DISCLAIMER CAREFULLY BEFORE ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE. BY ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE, YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS SET FORTH IN THE DISCLAIMER. Read the disclaimer