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Background

According to the CDC, over two-thirds of adults are considered to be overweight or obese. Obesity has been linked to immune dysfunction as well as immunosuppression. This tool utilizes the latest science regarding weight-loss approaches by harnessing three powerful strategies:

•  Estimating the energy requirements required to promote weight loss at a safe level based on the basal metabolic rate and overall fitness level.
• Provide guidance on the nutrient density of several food categories, and how leveraging key concepts can improve health and promote further reductions in weight.
• Using the satiety index to help guide and shape your daily food choices that lead to greater satiety and reductions in overall caloric intake.

The program automatically calculates BMR values for 5 well-known equations:

1. Harris-Benedict Equation: Estimation of total calories needed. The MOST widely used equation for calculating basal metabolic rate and total calories.
2. Revised Harris-Benedict Equation: The original Harris-Benedict equation was revised in 1984. This updated equation can be used to calculate the basal metabolic rate and total calories.
3. RESTING Metabolic Rate (RMR) : Resting Metabolic Rate Calc - This equation can be used to calculate the RESTING metabolic rate and total calories. Mifflin-St Jeor equation.
4. Schofield equation (BMR) : This equation was part of the previous government guidelines to formulate RDA's and can be used to calculate the basal metabolic rate and total calories needed.
5. Institute of Medicine Equation- LATEST EQUATION: Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)-  Estimation of total calories needed. This equation is behind the latest Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the new food pyramid, MyPyramid.

Age     Gender:

Height

Weight

Current daily activity level?

Sedentary.  Little to no regular exercise.   Typical activities of daily living such as gardening (no lifting), household tasks, light activity while sitting, loading/unloading car,  mopping, mowing lawn (power mower), etc.

Mild activity level: Intensive exercise for at least 20 minutes 1 to 3 times per week. This may include such things as bicycling, jogging, basketball, swimming, skating, etc.  If you do not exercise regularly, but you maintain a busy life style that requires you to walk frequently for long periods, you meet the requirements of this level.

Moderate activity level: Intensive exercise for at least 30 to 60 minutes 3 to 4 times per week. Any of the activities listed above will qualify.

Heavy or (Labor-intensive) activity level: Intensive exercise for 60 minutes or greater 5 to 7 days per week (see sample activities above).  Labor-intensive occupations also qualify for this level.  Labor-intensive occupations include construction work (brick laying, carpentry, general labor, etc.). Also farming, landscape worker or similar occupations.

Extreme level: Exceedingly active and/or very demanding activities:  Examples include:  (1) athlete with an almost unstoppable training schedule with multiple training sessions throughout the day  (2) very demanding job, such as shoveling coal or working long hours on an assembly line. Generally, this level of activity is very difficult to achieve.

Calories/pound

Vegetables: 60-195 (~100)
Fruits: 140-420 (~300)
Unrefined complex carbs:  potatoes, pasta, rice, oats: 320-630  (~500)
Beans/peas/lentils: 310-780 (~600)
Meat/pork/beef/chicken: 1000-1200
Sugars/Honey/maple syrup/corn syrup: 1200-1800
Chips/crackers: 1480-1760
Cheese: 1700
Soft drinks: 1800
Ramen Noodles: 1997
Junk food: 2100 - 2400
Fried foods: 2500
Nuts/seeds: 2400-3200  (~2800)
Oils (canola, olive oil, etc): 4000

Satiety Index

Holt SH, Miller JC, Petocz P, Farmakalidis E. A satiety index of common foods. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995 Sep;49(9):675-90.

Background

• Satiety ratings were obtained every 15 min over 120 min after which subjects were free to eat ad libitum from a standard range of foods and drinks
•  A satiety index (SI) score was calculated by dividing the area under the satiety response curve (AUC) for the test food by the group mean satiety AUC for white bread and multiplying by 100. Thus, white bread had an SI score of 100% and the SI scores of the other foods were expressed as a percentage of white bread.
• RESULTS: There were significant differences in satiety both within and between the six food categories. The highest SI score was produced by boiled potatoes (323 +/- 51%) which was seven-fold higher than the lowest SI score of the croissant (47 +/- 17%). Most foods (76%) had an SI score greater than or equal to white bread.
• The amount of energy eaten immediately after 120 min correlated negatively with the mean satiety AUC responses (r = -0.37, P < 0.05, n = 43) thereby supporting the subjective satiety ratings.
• Protein, fiber, and water contents of the test foods correlated positively with SI scores (r = 0.37, P < 0.05, n = 38; r = 0.46, P < 0.01; and r = 0.64, P < 0.001; respectively) whereas fat content was negatively associated (r = -0.43, P < 0.01).
• CONCLUSION: The results show that isoenergetic servings of different foods differ greatly in their satiating capacities. This is relevant to the treatment and prevention of overweight and obesity. Foods rich in fiber also rank high and contain few calories. Generally speaking, foods that rank high and satisfy your hunger for a longer period of time are foods with high protein, -water- and/or fiber content.  These foods will help make you feel full, literally by filling your stomach, and with a full stomach you can more easily avoid nibbling.
• Plain boiled potatoes showed to be the most satisfying food tested according to energy content, three times more satisfying than white bread. A lot of people, having learned about the Glycemic Index, avoid potatoes during a diet as it doesn’t have a low glycemic index but a medium one. From a nutritional point of view plain boiled potatoes are an excellent choice of diet food, full of vitamins and fibers. Potatoes don’t make you gain weight, as long as you don’t eat them with butter, sour cream, cheese etc.
•  So, a good diet for weight loss should, from the satiety point of view, contain at least some slowly-digested carbs and protein. Together with what you already know of calorie content it’s easy to choose the right food. Good choices are lean meat and chicken without the skin, food rich in fiber, like beans and lentils and whole meal bread. Also preferable are foods rich in water.
• Vegetables are especially great for weight loss; they contain lots of nutritional value, few calories and they are filling. The Satiety Index has, as does the glycemic index, limitations. It doesn’t tell you anything about the nutritional value of the food; only how well a certain food satisfies your hunger.

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Foods that fill you up and that may help you lose weight.
Holt SH, et al. A satiety index of common foods. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995 Sep;49(9):675-90.

Carnivore

Potatoes, boiled 323%
Ling (cod-like fish) 225%
Porridge/Oatmeal 209%
Oranges 202%
Apples 197%
Brown pasta 188%
Beef 176%
Baked beans 168%
Grapes 162%
Popcorn 154%
All-Bran 151%
Eggs 150%
Cheese 146%
White rice 138%
Lentils 133%
Brown Rice 132%
Honeysmacks 132%
Potatoes, boiled 323%
Porridge/Oatmeal 209%
Oranges 202%
Apples 197%
Brown pasta 188%
Baked beans 168%
Grapes 162%
Popcorn 154%
White rice 138%
Lentils 133%
Brown Rice 132%
Honeysmacks 132%
All-Bran 151%
Ling (cod-like fish) 225%
Beef 176%
Eggs 150%
Cheese 146%

Satiety failures (130 or less)

Crackers 127%
White pasta 119%
Bananas 118%
Jellybeans 118%
Cornflakes 118%
Special K 116%
French fries 116%
Sustain 112%
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Muesli 100%
Ice cream 96%
Crisps 91%
Yogurt 88%
Peanuts 84%
Mars candy bar 70%
Doughnuts 68%
Cake 65%
Croissant 47%

Dieting - BMR - RMR Calculators:

Several of these calculators may be particularly useful for dieters.  Just about every single MAJOR calorie/ energy equation that has been released over the last 90 years is included below.   Each calculator has a customized printout option for easy analysis.  Recommendation: Try each calculator - print out the results -  then compare!

Estimated 'Calorie' Calculators:

Harris-Benedict Equation:  Estimation of total calories needed. MOST widely used equation for calculating basal metabolic rate and total calories.
Revised Harris-Benedict Equation:The original Harris Benedict equation was revised in 1984.  This updated equation can be used to calculate the basal metabolic rate and total calories.
RESTING Metabolic Rate (RMR): Resting Metabolic Rate Calc - This equation can be used to calculate the RESTING metabolic rate and total calories. Mifflin-St Jeor equation.
Schofield equation (BMR) : This equation was part of the previous government guidelines to formulate RDA's and can be used to calculate the basal metabolic rate and total calories needed.
Institute of Medicine Equation- LATEST EQUATION: IOM Equation-Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) Estimation of total calories needed. This equation is behind the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the new food pyramid, MyPyramid.

Check out the new BMR multi-calc.

References

1. Harris JA, Benedict FG. A biometric study of human basal metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1918;4(12):370-3.

2. Roza AM, Shizgal HM. The Harris Benedict equation reevaluated: resting energy requirements and the body cell mass. Am J Clin Nutr July 1984 vol.40(1),168-182. https://www.ajcn.org/content/40/1/168

3. Mifflin, MD; St Jeor, ST; Hill, LA; Scott, BJ; Daugherty, SA; Koh, YO (1990). "A new predictive equation for resting energy expenditure in healthy individuals". The American journal of clinical nutrition 51 (2): 241-7.

4. Schofield WN. Predicting basal metabolic rate, new standards and review of previous work. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr. 1985;39 Suppl 1:5-41. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4044297

5. Dietary Reference Intakes For Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids,Cholesterol, Protein,and Amino Acids, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, 2002 and 2005, THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001     Link: www.nap.edu

6. Holt SH, Miller JC, Petocz P, Farmakalidis E. A satiety index of common foods. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995 Sep;49(9):675-90.
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