Diabetes: Drug Class Navigation
|Drug UPDATES: TRESIBA ®- insulin degludec injection
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Initial U.S. Approval: 2015
Mechanism of Action: The primary activity of insulin, including TRESIBA, is regulation of glucose metabolism. Insulin and its analogs lower blood glucose by stimulating peripheral glucose uptake, especially by skeletal muscle and fat, and by inhibiting hepatic glucose production. Insulin also inhibits lipolysis and proteolysis, and enhances protein synthesis. TRESIBA forms multi-hexamers when injected into the subcutaneous tissue resulting in a subcutaneous insulin degludec depot. The protracted time action profile of TRESIBA is predominantly due to delayed absorption of insulin degludec from the subcutaneous tissue to the systemic circulation and to a lesser extent due to binding of insulin-degludec to circulating albumin.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE: TRESIBA is indicated to improve glycemic control in adults with diabetes mellitus.
Limitations of Use
100 units/mL (U-100): 3 mL FlexTouch disposable prefilled pen
Receptor-bound insulin lowers blood glucose by facilitating cellular uptake of glucose into skeletal muscle and fat and by inhibiting the output of glucose from the liver. Insulin inhibits lipolysis in the adipocyte, inhibits proteolysis, and enhances protein synthesis.
The prolonged action of LEVEMIR is mediated by the slow systemic absorption of insulin detemir molecules from the injection site due to strong self-association of the drug molecules and albumin binding. Insulin detemir is distributed more slowly to peripheral target tissues since insulin detemir in the bloodstream is highly bound to albumin.
For doses in the interval of 0.2 to 0.4 U/kg, LEVEMIR exerts more than 50% of its maximum effect from 3 to 4 hours up to approximately 14 hours after dose administration.
Maximum serum concentration (Cmax) is reached between 6 and 8 hours after administration.
Distribution and Elimination
Geriatrics– In a clinical trial investigating differences in pharmacokinetics of a single subcutaneous dose of LEVEMIR in young (25 to 35 years) versus elderly (≥68 years) healthy subjects, higher insulin AUC levels (up to 35%) were found in elderly subjects due to a reduced clearance. As with other insulin preparations, LEVEMIR should always be titrated according to individual requirements.
Gender– In controlled clinical trials, no clinically relevant difference between genders is seen in pharmacokinetic parameters based on subgroup analyses.
Race– In two trials in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects, there were no clinically relevant differences seen in pharmacokinetic parameters. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of LEVEMIR were investigated in a clamp trial comparing patients with type 2 diabetes of Caucasian, African-American, and Latino origin. Dose-response relationships were comparable for LEVEMIR in these three populations.
Renal impairment– Individuals with renal impairment showed no difference in pharmacokinetic parameters as compared to healthy volunteers. However, literature reports have shown that clearance of human insulin is decreased in renally impaired patients. Careful glucose monitoring and dose adjustments of insulin, including LEVEMIR, may be necessary in patients with renal dysfunction (see PRECAUTIONS, Renal Impairment).
Hepatic impairment– Individuals with severe hepatic dysfunction, without diabetes, were observed to have lower AUCs as compared to healthy volunteers. Careful glucose monitoring and dose adjustments of insulin, including LEVEMIR, may be necessary in patients with hepatic dysfunction (see PRECAUTIONS, Hepatic Impairment).
Pregnancy– The effect of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of LEVEMIR has not been studied (see package insert: PRECAUTIONS, Pregnancy ).
Smoking– The effect of smoking on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of LEVEMIR has not been studied
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Glucose monitoring is recommended for all patients with diabetes.
LEVEMIR is not to be used in insulin infusion pumps.
Any change of insulin dose should be made cautiously and only under medical supervision. Changes in insulin strength, timing of dosing, manufacturer, type (e.g., regular, NPH, or insulin analogs), species (animal, human), or method of manufacture (rDNA versus animal-source insulin) may result in the need for a change in dosage.
Concomitant oral antidiabetic treatment may need to be adjusted.
Needles and Levemir FlexPen must not be shared
LEVEMIR is not intended for intravenous or intramuscular administration. The prolonged duration of activity of insulin detemir is dependent on injection into subcutaneous tissue. Intravenous administration of the usual subcutaneous dose could result in severe hypoglycemia. Absorption after intramuscular administration is both faster and more extensive than absorption after subcutaneous administration.
LEVEMIR should not be diluted or mixed with any other insulin preparations
Insulin may cause sodium retention and edema, particularly if previously poor metabolic control is improved by intensified insulin therapy.
Lipodystrophy and hypersensitivity are among potential clinical adverse effects associated with the use of all insulins.
As with all insulin preparations, the time course of LEVEMIR action may vary in different individuals or at different times in the same individual and is dependent on site of injection, blood supply, temperature, and physical activity.
Adjustment of dosage of any insulin may be necessary if patients change their physical activity or their usual meal plan.
The time of occurrence of hypoglycemia depends on the action profile of the insulins used and may, therefore, change when the treatment regimen or timing of dosing is changed. In patients being switched from other intermediate or long-acting insulin preparations to once- or twice-daily LEVEMIR, dosages can be prescribed on a unit-to-unit basis; however, as with all insulin preparations, dose and timing of administration may need to be adjusted to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Changeover to LEVEMIR).
Injection Site and Allergic Reactions
In some instances, these reactions may be related to factors other than insulin, such as irritants in a skin cleansing agent or poor injection technique.
Systemic allergy: Generalized allergy to insulin, which is less common but potentially more serious, may cause rash (including pruritus) over the whole body, shortness of breath, wheezing, reduction in blood pressure, rapid pulse, or sweating. Severe cases of generalized allergy, including anaphylactic reaction, may be life-threatening.
A number of substances affect glucose metabolism and may require insulin dose adjustment and particularly close monitoring.
The following are examples of substances that may reduce the blood-glucose-lowering effect of insulin: corticosteroids, danazol, diuretics, sympathomimetic agents (e.g., epinephrine, albuterol, terbutaline), isoniazid, phenothiazine derivatives, somatropin, thyroid hormones, estrogens, progestogens (e.g., in oral contraceptives).
The following are examples of substances that may increase the blood-glucose-lowering effect of insulin and susceptibility to hypoglycemia: oral antidiabetic drugs, ACE inhibitors, disopyramide, fibrates, fluoxetine, MAO inhibitors, propoxyphene, salicylates, somatostatin analog (e.g., octreotide), and sulfonamide antibiotics.
Beta-blockers, clonidine, lithium salts, and alcohol may either potentiate or weaken the blood-glucose-lowering effect of insulin. Pentamidine may cause hypoglycemia, which may sometimes be followed by hyperglycemia. In addition, under the influence of sympatholytic medicinal products such as beta-blockers, clonidine, guanethidine, and reserpine, the signs of hypoglycemia may be reduced or absent.
The results of in-vitro and in-vivo protein binding studies demonstrate that there is no clinically relevant interaction between insulin detemir and fatty acids or other protein bound drugs.
Mixing of Insulins
LEVEMIR should NOT be mixed or diluted with any other insulin preparations.
Preganancy Category C
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
LEVEMIR should be administered by subcutaneous injection in the thigh, abdominal wall, or upper arm. Injection sites should be rotated within the same region. As with all insulins, the duration of action will vary according to the dose, injection site, blood flow, temperature, and level of physical activity.
Dose Determination for LEVEMIR
Preparation and Handling
LEVEMIR should not be mixed or diluted with any other insulin preparations.
After each injection, patients must remove the needle without recapping and dispose of it in a puncture-resistant container. Used syringes, needles, or lancets should be placed in “sharps” containers (such as red biohazard containers), hard plastic containers (such as detergent bottles), or metal containers (such as an empty coffee can). Such containers should be sealed and disposed of properly.
*LEVEMIR PenFill® cartridges are for use with Novo Nordisk 3 mL PenFill® cartridge compatible insulin delivery devices and NovoFine® disposable needles.
After initial use, vials should be stored in a refrigerator, never in a freezer. If refrigeration is not possible, the in-use vial can be kept unrefrigerated at room temperature, below 30°C (86°F), for up to 42 days, as long as it is kept as cool as possible and away from direct heat and light.
Unpunctured vials can be used until the expiration date printed on the label if they are stored in a refrigerator. Keep unused vials in the carton so they will stay clean and protected from light.
PenFill® cartridges, FlexPen® or InnoLet®:
After initial use, a cartridge (PenFill®) or a prefilled syringe (including FlexPen® or InnoLet®) may be used for up to 42 days if it is kept at room temperature, below 30°C (86°F). In-use cartridges and prefilled syringes in-use must NOT be stored in a refrigerator and must NOT be stored with the needle in place. Keep all cartridges and prefilled syringes away from direct heat and sunlight.
Not in-use (unopened) LEVEMIR PenFill®, FlexPen® or InnoLet® can be used until the expiration date printed on the label if they are stored in a refrigerator. Keep unused cartridges and prefilled syringes in the carton so they will stay clean and protected from light.
The storage conditions are summarized in the following table:
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INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Important Limitations of Use:
Clinical Pharmacology (Below).
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact sanofi-aventis at 1-800-633-1610 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (FULL PRESCRIBING)
LANTUS may be administered at any time during the day. LANTUS should be administered subcutaneously once a day at the same time every day. The dose of LANTUS must be individualized based on clinical response. Blood glucose monitoring is essential in all patients receiving insulin therapy.
Patients adjusting the amount or timing of dosing with LANTUS, should only do so under medical supervision with appropriate glucose monitoring.
In patients with type 1 diabetes, LANTUS must be used in regimens with short-acting insulin.
The intended duration of activity of LANTUS is dependent on injection into subcutaneous tissue. LANTUS should not be administered intravenously or via an insulin pump. Intravenous administration of the usual subcutaneous dose could result in severe hypoglycemia.
As with all insulins, injection sites should be rotated within the same region (abdomen, thigh, or deltoid) from one injection to the next to reduce the risk of lipodystrophy.
In clinical studies, there was no clinically relevant difference in insulin glargine absorption after abdominal, deltoid, or thigh subcutaneous administration. As for all insulins, the rate of absorption, and consequently the onset and duration of action, may be affected by exercise and other variables, such as stress, intercurrent illness, or changes in co-administered drugs or meal patterns.
Initiation of LANTUS therapy
The recommended starting dose of LANTUS in patients with type 2 diabetes who are not currently treated with insulin is 10 units (or 0.2 Units/kg) once daily, which should subsequently be adjusted to the patient’s needs.
The dose of LANTUS should be adjusted according to blood glucose measurements. The dosage of LANTUS should be individualized under the supervision of a healthcare provider in accordance with the needs of the patient.
Converting to LANTUS from other insulin therapies
If transferring patients from once-daily NPH insulin to once-daily LANTUS, the recommended initial LANTUS dose is the same as the dose of NPH that is being discontinued.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Changes in insulin strength, manufacturer, type, or method of administration may result in the need for a change in insulin dose or an adjustment in concomitant oral anti-diabetic treatment.
As with all insulin preparations, the time course of action for LANTUS may vary in different individuals or at different times in the same individual and is dependent on many conditions, including the local blood supply, local temperature, and physical activity.
Intravenous administration of the usual subcutaneous dose could result in severe hypoglycemia
Do not share disposable or reusable insulin devices or needles between patients, because doing so carries a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens.
The timing of hypoglycemia usually reflects the time-action profile of the administered insulin formulations. Other factors such as changes in food intake (e.g., amount of food or timing of meals), exercise, and concomitant medications may also alter the risk of hypoglycemia
Hypersensitivity and allergic reactions
Although studies have not been performed in patients with diabetes and renal impairment, a reduction in the LANTUS dose may be required in patients with renal impairment because of reduced insulin metabolism, similar to observations found with other insulins. [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Although studies have not been performed in patients with diabetes and hepatic impairment, a reduction in the LANTUS dose may be required in patients with hepatic impairment because of reduced capacity for gluconeogenesis and reduced insulin metabolism, similar to observations found with other insulins.
The following are examples of drugs that may increase the blood-glucose-lowering effect of insulins including LANTUS and, therefore, increase the susceptibility to hypoglycemia: oral anti-diabetic products, pramlintide, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, disopyramide, fibrates, fluoxetine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, propoxyphene, pentoxifylline, salicylates, somatostatin analogs, and sulfonamide antibiotics.
The following are examples of drugs that may reduce the blood-glucose-lowering effect of insulins including LANTUS: corticosteroids, niacin, danazol, diuretics, sympathomimetic agents (e.g., epinephrine, albuterol, terbutaline), glucagon, isoniazid, phenothiazine derivatives, somatropin, thyroid hormones, estrogens, progestogens (e.g., in oral contraceptives), protease inhibitors and atypical antipsychotic medications (e.g. olanzapine and clozapine).
Beta-blockers, clonidine, lithium salts, and alcohol may either potentiate or weaken the blood-glucose-lowering effect of insulin. Pentamidine may cause hypoglycemia, which may sometimes be followed by hyperglycemia.
The signs of hypoglycemia may be reduced or absent in patients taking sympatholytic drugs such as beta-blockers, clonidine, guanethidine, and reserpine.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
There are no well-controlled clinical studies of the use of LANTUS in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. It is essential for patients with diabetes or a history of gestational diabetes to maintain good metabolic control before conception and throughout pregnancy. Insulin requirements may decrease during the first trimester, generally increase during the second and third trimesters, and rapidly decline after delivery. Careful monitoring of glucose control is essential in these patients.
Based on the results of a study in pediatric patients, the dose recommendation when switching to LANTUS is the same as that described for adults [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Studies (14)]. As in adults, the dosage of LANTUS must be individualized in pediatric patients based on metabolic needs and frequent monitoring of blood glucose.
Nevertheless, caution should be exercised when LANTUS is administered to geriatric patients. In elderly patients with diabetes, the initial dosing, dose increments, and maintenance dosage should be conservative to avoid hypoglycemic reactions. Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in the elderly
In clinical studies, the glucose-lowering effect on a molar basis (i.e., when given at the same doses) of intravenous insulin glargine is approximately the same as that for human insulin. In euglycemic clamp studies in healthy subjects or in patients with type 1 diabetes, the onset of action of subcutaneous insulin glargine was slower than NPH insulin. The effect profile of insulin glargine was relatively constant with no pronounced peak and the duration of its effect was prolonged compared to NPH insulin. The median time between injection and the end of pharmacological effect was 14.5 hours (range: 9.5 to 19.3 hours) for NPH insulin, and 24 hours (range: 10.8 to >24.0 hours) (24 hours was the end of the observation period) for insulin glargine.
The longer duration of action (up to 24 hours) of LANTUS is directly related to its slower rate of absorption and supports once-daily subcutaneous administration. The time course of action of insulins, including LANTUS, may vary between individuals and within the same individual.
Absorption and Bioavailability. After subcutaneous injection of insulin glargine in healthy subjects and in patients with diabetes, the insulin serum concentrations indicated a slower, more prolonged absorption and a relatively constant concentration/time profile over 24 hours with no pronounced peak in comparison to NPH insulin. Serum insulin concentrations were thus consistent with the time profile of the pharmacodynamic activity of insulin glargine.
After subcutaneous injection of 0.3 Units/kg insulin glargine in patients with type 1 diabetes, a relatively constant concentration/time profile has been demonstrated. The duration of action after abdominal, deltoid, or thigh subcutaneous administration was similar.
Metabolism. A metabolism study in humans indicates that insulin glargine is partly metabolized at the carboxyl terminus of the B chain in the subcutaneous depot to form two active metabolites with in vitro activity similar to that of insulin, M1 (21A-Gly-insulin) and M2 (21A-Gly-des-30B-Thr-insulin). Unchanged drug and these degradation products are also present in the circulation.
Smoking. The effect of smoking on the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of LANTUS has not been studied.
Pregnancy. The effect of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of LANTUS has not been studied.
Obesity. In controlled clinical trials, which included patients with Body Mass Index (BMI) up to and including 49.6 kg/m2, subgroup analyses based on BMI did not show differences in safety and efficacy between insulin glargine and NPH insulin.
Renal Impairment. The effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of LANTUS has not been studied. However, some studies with human insulin have shown increased circulating levels of insulin in patients with renal failure. Careful glucose monitoring and dose adjustments of insulin, including LANTUS, may be necessary in patients with renal impairment.
Hepatic Impairment. The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of LANTUS has not been studied. However, some studies with human insulin have shown increased circulating levels of insulin in patients with liver failure. Careful glucose monitoring and dose adjustments of insulin, including LANTUS, may be necessary in patients with hepatic impairment
HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
Needles are not included in the packs.
BD Ultra-Fine™ needles1 to be used in conjunction with SoloStar and OptiClik are sold separately and are manufactured by BD.
Unopened Vial/Cartridge system/SoloStar disposable insulin device:
Open (In-Use) Vial:
Open (In-Use) Cartridge system:
Open (In-Use) SoloStar disposable insulin device:
These storage conditions are summarized in the following table:
National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, DailyMed Database.
Provides access to the latest drug monographs submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Please review the latest applicable package insert for additional information and possible updates. A local search option of this data can be found here.
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