CAMP test: important test for identification. GBS (group B Streptococcus species) are screened through this test. It is characterized by the presence of group B Lancefield antigen and by its ability to hydrolyze sodium hippurate.
Sensitive to bile, and will lyse in its presence.
S. agalactiae’s polysaccharide antiphagocytic capsule is its main virulence factor.
S. agalactiae is a member of the gastrointestinal normal flora in some humans and can spread to secondary sites – genitourinary tract of women 20-30%. Clinical importance: S. agalactiae can be transferred to a neonate passing through the birth canal and can cause serious group B streptococcal infection.
S. agalactiae is the major cause of bacterial septicemia of the newborn, which can lead to death or long-term sequelae. S. agalactiae invades via alveolar and pulmonary epithelial cells; newborns are especially susceptible to infection because they lack alveolar macrophages to prevent invasion.
Important considerations: The choice of an agent should be based on local antimicrobial sensitivities, site of infection, cost, and comorbid conditions. Generally, the most common agents/regimens are listed first. Listed dosages may need to be adjusted for renal dysfunction.