Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section
Increased Mortality In Elderly Patients With Dementia-Related Psychosis
Antipsychotic drugs increase the all-cause risk of death in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis. Analyses of 17 dementia-related psychosis placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks and largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs) revealed a risk of death in the drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times that in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in placebo-treated patients.
Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. VRAYLAR is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see BOX WARNING, Cerebrovascular Adverse Reactions, Including Stroke, In Elderly Patients With Dementia-Related Psychosis].
Cerebrovascular Adverse Reactions, Including Stroke, In Elderly Patients With Dementia-Related Psychosis
In placebo-controlled trials in elderly subjects with dementia, patients randomized to risperidone, aripiprazole, and olanzapine had a higher incidence of stroke and transient ischemic attack, including fatal stroke. VRAYLAR is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see BOX WARNING, Increased Mortality In Elderly Patients With Dementia-Related Psychosis].
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS), a potentially fatal symptom complex, has been reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, delirium, and autonomic instability. Additional signs may include elevated creatine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure.
If NMS is suspected, immediately discontinue VRAYLAR and provide intensive symptomatic treatment and monitoring.
Tardive dyskinesia, a syndrome consisting of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements, may develop in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, including VRAYLAR. The risk appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women, but it is not possible to predict which patients are likely to develop the syndrome. Whether antipsychotic drug products differ in their potential to cause tardive dyskinesia is unknown.
The risk of tardive dyskinesia and the likelihood that it will become irreversible increase with the duration of treatment and the cumulative dose. The syndrome can develop after a relatively brief treatment period, even at low doses. It may also occur after discontinuation of treatment.
Tardive dyskinesia may remit, partially or completely, if antipsychotic treatment is discontinued. Antipsychotic treatment itself, however, may suppress (or partially suppress) the signs and symptoms of the syndrome, possibly masking the underlying process. The effect that symptomatic suppression has upon the long-term course of tardive dyskinesia is unknown.
Given these considerations, VRAYLAR should be prescribed in a manner most likely to reduce the risk of tardive dyskinesia. Chronic antipsychotic treatment should generally be reserved for patients: 1) who suffer from a chronic illness that is known to respond to antipsychotic drugs; and 2) for whom alternative, effective, but potentially less harmful treatments are not available or appropriate. In patients who do require chronic treatment, use the lowest dose and the shortest duration of treatment producing a satisfactory clinical response should be sought. Periodically reassess the need for continued treatment.
If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient on VRAYLAR, drug discontinuation should be considered. However, some patients may require treatment with VRAYLAR despite the presence of the syndrome.
Late-Occurring Adverse Reactions
Adverse events may first appear several weeks after the initiation of VRAYLAR treatment, probably because plasma levels of cariprazine and its major metabolites accumulate over time. As a result, the incidence of adverse reactions in short-term trials may not reflect the rates after longer term exposures
[see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, ADVERSE REACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Monitor for adverse reactions, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) or akathisia, and patient response for several weeks after a patient has begun VRAYLAR and after each dosage increase. Consider reducing the dose or discontinuing the drug.
Atypical antipsychotic drugs, including VRAYLAR, have caused metabolic changes, including hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and weight gain. Although all of the drugs in the class to date have been shown to produce some metabolic changes, each drug has its own specific risk profile.
Hyperglycemia And Diabetes Mellitus
Hyperglycemia, in some cases extreme and associated with ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma or death, has been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. Assess fasting plasma glucose before or soon after initiation of antipsychotic medication, and monitor periodically during long-term treatment.
In the 6-week, placebo-controlled trials of adult patients with schizophrenia, the proportion of patients with shifts in fasting glucose from normal (<100 mg/dL) to high (≥126 mg/dL) and borderline (≥100 and <126 mg/dL) to high were similar in patients treated with VRAYLAR and placebo. In the long-term, open-label schizophrenia studies, 4% patients with normal hemoglobin A1c baseline values developed elevated levels (≥6.5%).
In the 3-week, placebo-controlled trials of adult patients with bipolar disorder, the proportion of patients with shifts in fasting glucose from normal (<100 mg/dL) to high (≥126 mg/dL) and borderline (≥100 and <126 mg/dL) to high were similar in patients treated with VRAYLAR and placebo. In the long-term, open-label bipolar disorder studies, 4% patients with normal hemoglobin A1c baseline values developed elevated levels (≥6.5%).
Atypical antipsychotics cause adverse alterations in lipids. Before or soon after initiation of antipsychotic medication, obtain a fasting lipid profile at baseline and monitor periodically during treatment.
In the 6-week, placebo-controlled trials of adult patients with schizophrenia, the proportion of patients with shifts in fasting total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides were similar in patients treated with VRAYLAR and placebo.
In the 3-week, placebo-controlled trials of adult patients with bipolar disorder, the proportion of patients with shifts in fasting total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides were similar in patients treated with VRAYLAR and placebo.
Weight gain has been observed with use of atypical antipsychotics, including VRAYLAR. Monitor weight at baseline and frequently thereafter. Tables 1 and 2 show the change in body weight occurring from baseline to endpoint in 6-week schizophrenia and 3-week bipolar mania trials.
Table 1. Change in Body Weight (kg) in 6-Week Schizophrenia Trials
|1.5 - 3 mg/day
|4.5 - 6 mg/day
|9 - 12 mg/day
|Mean Change at Endpoint
|Proportion of Patients with Weight Increase (≥7%)
|*Data shown by modal daily dose, defined as most frequently administered dose per patient
Table 2. Change in Body Weight (kg) in 3-Week Bipolar Mania Trials
|3 - 6 mg/day
|9 - 12 mg/day
|Mean Change at Endpoint
|Proportion of Patients with Weight Increase (≥7%)
|*Data shown by modal daily dose, defined as most frequently administered dose per patient
In long-term, uncontrolled trials with VRAYLAR in schizophrenia, the mean changes from baseline in weight at 12, 24, and 48 weeks were 1.2 kg, 1.7 kg, and 2.5 kg, respectively.
Leukopenia, Neutropenia, And Agranulocytosis
Leukopenia and neutropenia have been reported during treatment with antipsychotic agents, including VRAYLAR. Agranulocytosis (including fatal cases) has been reported with other agents in the class.
Possible risk factors for leukopenia and neutropenia include pre-existing low white blood cell count (WBC) or absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and history of drug-induced leukopenia or neutropenia. In patients with a pre-existing low WBC or ANC or a history of drug-induced leukopenia or neutropenia, perform a complete blood count (CBC) frequently during the first few months of therapy. In such patients, consider discontinuation of VRAYLAR at the first sign of a clinically significant decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors.
Monitor patients with clinically significant neutropenia for fever or other symptoms or signs of infection and treat promptly if such symptoms or signs occur. Discontinue VRAYLAR in patients with absolute neutrophil count < 1000/mm3 and follow their WBC until recovery.
Orthostatic Hypotension And Syncope
Atypical antipsychotics cause orthostatic hypotension and syncope. Generally, the risk is greatest during initial dose titration and when increasing the dose. Symptomatic orthostatic hypotension was infrequent in trials of VRAYLAR and was not more frequent on VRAYLAR than placebo. Syncope was not observed.
Orthostatic vital signs should be monitored in patients who are vulnerable to hypotension (e.g., elderly patients, patients with dehydration, hypovolemia, and concomitant treatment with antihypertensive medications), patients with known cardiovascular disease (history of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, or conduction abnormalities), and patients with cerebrovascular disease. VRAYLAR has not been evaluated in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable cardiovascular disease. Such patients were excluded from pre-marketing clinical trials.
VRAYLAR may cause somnolence, postural hypotension, motor and sensory instability, which may lead to falls and, consequently, fractures or other injuries. For patients with diseases, conditions, or medications that could exacerbate these effects, complete fall risk assessments when initiating antipsychotic treatment and recurrently for patients on long-term antipsychotic therapy.
Like other antipsychotic drugs, VRAYLAR may cause seizures. This risk is greatest in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that lower the seizure threshold. Conditions that lower the seizure threshold may be more prevalent in older patients.
Potential For Cognitive And Motor Impairment
VRAYLAR, like other antipsychotics, has the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills.
In 6-week schizophrenia trials, somnolence (hypersomnia, sedation, and somnolence) was reported in 7% of VRAYLAR-treated patients compared to 6% of placebo-treated patients. In 3-week bipolar mania trials, somnolence was reported in 8% of VRAYLAR-treated patients compared to 4% of placebo-treated patients.
Patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including motor vehicles, until they are reasonably certain that therapy with VRAYLAR does not affect them adversely.
Body Temperature Dysregulation
Atypical antipsychotics may disrupt the body’s ability to reduce core body temperature. Strenuous exercise, exposure to extreme heat, dehydration, and anticholinergic medications may contribute to an elevation in core body temperature; use VRAYLAR with caution in patient who may experience these conditions.
Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotic drug use. Dysphagia has been reported with VRAYLAR. VRAYLAR and other antipsychotic drugs should be used cautiously in patients at risk for aspiration.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
There was no increase in the incidence of tumors following daily oral administration of cariprazine to rats for 2 years and to Tg.rasH2 mice for 6 months at doses which are up to 4 and 19 times respectively, the MRHD of 6 mg/day based on AUC of total cariprazine, (i.e. sum of AUC values of cariprazine, DCAR and DDCAR).
Rats were administered cariprazine at oral doses of 0.25, 0.75, and 2.5 (males)/1, 2.5, and 7.5 mg/kg/day (females) which are 0.2 to 1.8 (males)/ 0.8 to 4.1 (females) times the MRHD of 6 mg/day based on AUC of total cariprazine.
Tg.rasH2 mice were administered cariprazine at oral doses of 1, 5, and 15 (males)/5, 15, and 50 mg/kg/day (females) which are 0.2 to 7.9 (males)/2.6 to 19 (females) times the MRHD of 6 mg/day based on AUC of total cariprazine.
Cariprazine was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay, nor clastogenic in the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay or in the in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. However, cariprazine increased the mutation frequency in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay under conditions of metabolic activation. The major human metabolite DDCAR was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay, however, it was clastogenic and induced structural chromosomal aberration in the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay.
Impairment Of Fertility
Cariprazine was administered orally to male and female rats before mating, through mating and up to day 7 of gestation at doses of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg/day which are 1.6 to 16 times the MRHD of 6 mg/day based on mg/m2. In female rats, lower fertility and conception indices were observed at all dose levels which are equal to or higher than 1.6 times the MRHD of 6 mg/day based on mg/m2. No effects on male fertility were noted at any dose up to 4.3 times the MRHD of 6 mg/day based on AUC of total cariprazine.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to VRAYLAR during pregnancy. For more information, contact the National Pregnancy Registry for Atypical Antipsychotics at 1-866-961-2388 or visit http://womensmentalhealth.org/clinical-and-researchprograms/pregnancyregistry/.
Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. There are no available data on VRAYLAR use in pregnant women to inform any drug-associated risks for birth defects or miscarriage. Based on animal data VRAYLAR may cause fetal harm. Administration of cariprazine to rats during the period of organogenesis caused malformations, lower pup survival, and developmental delays at drug exposures less than the human exposure at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 6 mg/day. However, cariprazine was not teratogenic in rabbits at doses up to 4.6 times the MRHD of 6 mg/day [see Data]. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms, including agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress and feeding disorder have been reported in neonates whose mothers were exposed to antipsychotic drugs during the third trimester of pregnancy. These symptoms have varied in severity. Some neonates recovered within hours or days without specific treatment; others required prolonged hospitalization. Monitor neonates for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms and manage symptoms appropriately.
Administration of cariprazine to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis at oral doses of 0.5, 2.5, and 7.5 mg/kg/day which are 0.2 to 3.5 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 6 mg/day based on AUC of total cariprazine (i.e. sum of cariprazine, DCAR, and DDCAR) caused fetal developmental toxicity at all doses which included reduced body weight, decreased male anogenital distance and skeletal malformations of bent limb bones, scapula and humerus. These effects occurred in the absence or presence of maternal toxicity. Maternal toxicity, observed as a reduction in body weight and food consumption, occurred at doses 1.2 and 3.5-times the MRHD of 6 mg/kg/day based on AUC of total cariprazine. At these doses, cariprazine caused fetal external malformations (localized fetal thoracic edema), visceral variations (undeveloped/underdeveloped renal papillae and/or distended urethrae), and skeletal developmental variations (bent ribs, unossified sternebrae). Cariprazine had no effect on fetal survival.
Administration of cariprazine to pregnant rats during pregnancy and lactation at oral doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg/day which are 0.03 to 0.4 times the MRHD of 6 mg/day based on AUC of total cariprazine caused a decrease in postnatal survival, birth weight, and post-weaning body weight of first generation pups at the dose that is 0.4 times the MRHD of 6 mg/day based on AUC of total cariprazine in absence of maternal toxicity. First generation pups also had pale, cold bodies and developmental delays (renal papillae not developed or underdeveloped and decreased auditory startle response in males). Reproductive performance of the first generation pups was unaffected; however, the second generation pups had clinical signs and lower body weight similar to these of the first generation pups.
Administration of cariprazine to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis at oral doses of 0.1, 1, and 5 mg/kg/day, which are 0.02 to 4.6 times the MRHD of 6 mg/day based on AUC of total cariprazine was not teratogenic. Maternal body weight and food consumption were decreased at 4.6 times the MRHD of 6 mg/day based on AUC of total cariprazine; however, no adverse effects were observed on pregnancy parameters or reproductive organs.
Lactation studies have not been conducted to assess the presence of cariprazine in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Cariprazine is present in rat milk. The development and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for VRAYLAR and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from VRAYLAR or from the underlying maternal condition.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Pediatric studies of VRAYLAR have not been conducted. Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery [see Pregnancy]
Clinical trials of VRAYLAR in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar mania did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and older to determine whether or not they respond differently from younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with VRAYLAR are at an increased risk of death compared to placebo. VRAYLAR is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see BOX WARNING and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
No dosage adjustment for VRAYLAR is required in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score between 5 and 9) [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Usage of VRAYLAR is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score between 10 and 15). VRAYLAR has not been evaluated in this patient population.
No dosage adjustment for VRAYLAR is required in patients with mild to moderate (CrCL ≥ 30 mL/minute) renal impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Usage of VRAYLAR is not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment (CrCL < 30 mL/minute). VRAYLAR has not been evaluated in this patient population.
No dosage adjustment for VRAYLAR is needed for patients who smoke. VRAYLAR is not a substrate for CYP1A2, smoking is not expected to have an effect on the pharmacokinetics of VRAYLAR.
Other Specific Populations
No dosage adjustment is required based on patient’s age, sex, or race. These factors do not affect the pharmacokinetics of VRAYLAR [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].