Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section
Risk Of Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation In Patients Coinfected With HCV And HBV
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has been reported in HCV/HBV coinfected patients who were undergoing or had completed treatment with HCV direct acting antivirals, and who were not receiving HBV antiviral therapy. Some cases have resulted in fulminant hepatitis, hepatic failure and death. Cases have been reported in patients who are HBsAg positive and also in patients with serologic evidence of resolved HBV infection (i.e., HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive). HBV reactivation has also been reported in patients receiving certain immunosuppressant or chemotherapeutic agents; the risk of HBV reactivation associated with treatment with HCV direct-acting antivirals may be increased in these patients.
HBV reactivation is characterized as an abrupt increase in HBV replication manifesting as a rapid increase in serum HBV DNA level. In patients with resolved HBV infection reappearance of HBsAg can occur. Reactivation of HBV replication may be accompanied by hepatitis, i.e., increases in aminotransferase levels and, in severe cases, increases in bilirubin levels, liver failure, and death can occur.
Test all patients for evidence of current or prior HBV infection by measuring HBsAg and anti-HBc before initiating HCV treatment with TECHNIVIE. In patients with serologic evidence of HBV infection, monitor for clinical and laboratory signs of hepatitis flare or HBV reactivation during HCV treatment with TECHNIVIE and during post-treatment follow-up. Initiate appropriate patient management for HBV infection as clinically indicated.
Risk Of Hepatic Decompensation And Hepatic Failure In Patients With Cirrhosis
Hepatic decompensation and hepatic failure, including liver transplantation or fatal outcomes, have been reported in clinical trials and postmarketing in patients treated with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir with and without ribavirin. Most patients with these severe outcomes had evidence of cirrhosis prior to initiating therapy. Reported cases typically occurred within one to four weeks of initiating therapy and were characterized by the acute onset of rising direct serum bilirubin levels without ALT elevations in association with clinical signs and symptoms of hepatic decompensation.
TECHNIVIE is contraindicated in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B and C) [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS, Use In Specific Populations, and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
For patients with compensated cirrhosis:
- Monitor for clinical signs and symptoms of hepatic decompensation (such as ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal hemorrhage).
- Hepatic laboratory testing including direct bilirubin levels should be performed at baseline and during the first 4 weeks of starting treatment and as clinically indicated.
- Discontinue TECHNIVIE in patients who develop evidence of hepatic decompensation.
Increased Risk Of ALT Elevations
During clinical trials with ombitasvir, paritaprevir and ritonavir with or without dasabuvir and with or without ribavirin, elevations of ALT to greater than 5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) occurred in approximately 1% of subjects [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. ALT elevations were typically asymptomatic, occurred during the first 4 weeks of treatment, and declined within two to eight weeks of onset with continued dosing.
These ALT elevations were significantly more frequent in female subjects who were using ethinyl estradiol-containing medications such as combined oral contraceptives, contraceptive patches or contraceptive vaginal rings. Ethinyl estradiol-containing medications must be discontinued prior to starting therapy with TECHNIVIE [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Alternative methods of contraception (e.g., progestin only contraception or non-hormonal methods) are recommended during TECHNIVIE therapy. Ethinyl estradiol-containing medications can be restarted approximately 2 weeks following completion of treatment with TECHNIVIE.
Women using estrogens other than ethinyl estradiol, such as estradiol and conjugated estrogens used in hormone replacement therapy had a rate of ALT elevation similar to those not receiving any estrogens. Due to the limited number of subjects taking these other estrogens in clinical studies, caution is warranted for co-administration with TECHNIVIE [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Hepatic laboratory testing should be performed during the first 4 weeks of starting treatment and as clinically indicated thereafter. If ALT is found to be elevated above baseline levels, it should be repeated and monitored closely:
- Patients should be instructed to consult their health care professional without delay if they have onset of fatigue, weakness, lack of appetite, nausea and vomiting, jaundice or discolored feces.
- Consider discontinuing TECHNIVIE if ALT levels remain persistently greater than 10 times the ULN.
- Discontinue TECHNIVIE if ALT elevation is accompanied by signs or symptoms of liver inflammation or increasing direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, or INR.
Risks Associated With Ribavirin Combination Treatment
The warnings and precautions for ribavirin, in particular the pregnancy avoidance warning and use in patients with cardiac disease, apply to this combination regimen. Refer to the ribavirin prescribing information for a full list of the warnings and precautions for ribavirin [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Risk Of Adverse Reactions Or Reduced Therapeutic Effect Due To Drug Interactions
The concomitant use of TECHNIVIE and certain other drugs may result in known or potentially significant drug interactions, some of which may lead to:
- Loss of therapeutic effect of TECHNIVIE and possible development of resistance
- Possible clinically significant adverse reactions from greater exposures of concomitant drugs or components of TECHNIVIE.
See Table 4 for steps to prevent or manage these possible and known significant drug interactions, including dosing recommendations [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Consider the potential for drug interactions prior to and during TECHNIVIE therapy; review concomitant medications during TECHNIVIE therapy; and monitor for the adverse reactions associated with the concomitant drugs [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Risk Of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor Drug Resistance In HCV/HIV-1 Co-Infected Patients
The ritonavir component of TECHNIVIE is also an HIV-1 protease inhibitor and can select for HIV-1 protease inhibitor resistance-associated substitutions. Any HCV/HIV-1 co-infected patients treated with TECHNIVIE should also be on a suppressive antiretroviral drug regimen to reduce the risk of HIV-1 protease inhibitor drug resistance.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
Inform patients to review the Medication Guide for ribavirin [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Risk Of Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation In Patients Coinfected With HCV And HBV
Inform patients that HBV reactivation can occur in patients coinfected with HBV during or after
treatment of HCV infection. Advise patients to tell their healthcare provider if they have a history of hepatitis B virus infection [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Risk Of ALT Elevations Or Hepatic Decompensation And Failure
Inform patients to watch for early warning signs of liver inflammation or failure, such as fatigue, weakness, lack of appetite, nausea and vomiting, as well as later signs such as jaundice, onset of confusion, abdominal swelling, and discolored feces, and to consult their health care professional without delay if such symptoms occur [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Advise patients that extreme care must be taken to avoid pregnancy during treatment with TECHNIVIE with ribavirin and within 6 months of stopping ribavirin in both female patients and in female partners of male patients. Inform patients to notify their health care provider immediately in the event of a pregnancy [see Use In Specific Populations].
Inform patients that TECHNIVIE may interact with some drugs; therefore, patients should be advised to report to their healthcare provider the use of any prescription, non-prescription medication or herbal products [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Inform patients that contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol are contraindicated with TECHNIVIE [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise patients to take TECHNIVIE every day at the regularly scheduled time with a meal without regard to fat or calorie content [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Inform patients that it is important not to miss or skip doses and to take TECHNIVIE for the duration that is recommended by the healthcare provider.
Advise patients not to remove tablets from the daily dose pack until they are ready to take them.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Carcinogenesis And Mutagenesis
Ombitasvir was not carcinogenic in a 6-month transgenic mouse study up to the highest dose tested (150 mg per kg per day). Similarly, ombitasvir was not carcinogenic in a 2-year rat study up to the highest dose tested (30 mg per kg per day), resulting in ombitasvir exposures approximately 16-fold higher than those in humans at 25 mg.
Ombitasvir and its major inactive human metabolites (M29, M36) were not genotoxic in a battery of in vitro or in vivo assays, including bacterial mutagenicity, chromosome aberration using human peripheral blood lymphocytes and in vivo mouse micronucleus assays.
Paritaprevir, ritonavir was not carcinogenic in a 6-month transgenic mouse study up to the highest dose tested (300/30 mg per kg per day). Similarly, paritaprevir, ritonavir was not carcinogenic in a 2-year rat study up to the highest dose tested (300/30 mg per kg per day), resulting in paritaprevir exposures approximately 11-fold higher than those in humans at 150 mg.
Paritaprevir was positive in an in vitro chromosome aberration test using human lymphocytes. Paritaprevir was negative in a bacterial mutation assay, and in two in vivo genetic toxicology assays (rat bone marrow micronucleus and rat liver Comet tests).
TECHNIVIE is administered with ribavirin. Refer to the prescribing information for ribavirin for information on carcinogenesis and mutagenesis.
Impairment Of Fertility
Ombitasvir had no effects on embryo-fetal viability or on fertility when evaluated in mice up to the highest dose of 200 mg per kg per day. Ombitasvir exposures at this dose were approximately 26-fold the exposure in humans at the recommended clinical dose.
Paritaprevir, ritonavir had no effects on embryo-fetal viability or on fertility when evaluated in rats up to the highest dose of 300/30 mg per kg per day. Paritaprevir exposures at this dose were approximately 3-to 8-fold the exposure in humans at the recommended clinical dose.
TECHNIVIE is administered with ribavirin. Refer to the prescribing information for ribavirin for information on Impairment of Fertility.
Use In Specific Populations
If TECHNIVIE is administered with ribavirin, the combination regimen is contraindicated in pregnant women and in men whose female partners are pregnant. Refer to the ribavirin prescribing information for more information on use in pregnancy.
No adequate human data are available to establish whether or not TECHNIVIE poses a risk to pregnancy outcomes. In animal reproduction studies, no adverse developmental effects were observed when the components of TECHNIVIE were administered separately during organogenesis and lactation. During organogenesis, the exposures were up to 29 and 4 times (mice and rabbits, respectively; ombitasvir), 143 and 12 times (mice and rats, respectively; paritaprevir, ritonavir) exposures at the recommended clinical dose of TECHNIVIE. In rodent pre/postnatal developmental studies, maternal systemic exposures (AUC) to ombitasvir and paritaprevir were approximately 26 and 24 times, respectively, the exposure in humans at the recommended clinical dose [see Data].
The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Ombitasvir was administered orally to pregnant mice (0, 15, 50, or 150 mg/kg/day) and rabbits (0, 10 or 60 mg/kg/day) during the period of organogenesis (on gestation days (GD) 6 to 15, and GD 7 to 19, respectively). There were no ombitasvir-related maternal or embryofetal effects (malformations or fetal toxicity) at any dose level in either species. The systemic exposures at the highest doses were 29-times higher (mice) and 4-times higher (rabbits) than the exposures in humans at the recommended clinical dose.
In a pre-and postnatal developmental study in mice, ombitasvir was administered orally at 0, 10, 40, or 200 mg/kg/day from GD 6 to lactation day 20. There were no ombitasvir-related effects at maternal exposures 26-times higher than exposures in humans at the recommended clinical dose.
The major human metabolites of ombitasvir, M29 and M36, were tested in pregnant mice during the period of organogenesis from GD 6 to 15. M29 was administered orally at doses of 0, 1, 2.5 or 4.5 mg/kg/day. M36 was dosed orally at doses 1.5, 3, or 6 mg/kg/day. In both cases, there were no treatment related maternal effects or embryofetal effects (malformations or fetal toxicity) at any dose level. The highest doses produced exposures approximately 26-times higher than the exposures in humans at the recommended clinical dose.
Paritaprevir/ritonavir was administered orally to pregnant rats (0/0, 30/15, 100/15, 450/45 mg/kg/day) and mice (0/0, 30/30, 100/30, or 300/30 mg/kg/day) during the period of organogenesis (on GD 6 to 17, and GD 6 to 15, respectively). There were no test article-related maternal or embryofetal effects (malformations or fetal toxicity) at any dose level in either species. The highest systemic exposure of paritaprevir was 12-times higher (rats) and 143-times higher (mice) than the exposures in humans at the recommended clinical dose.
In a pre-and postnatal developmental study in rats, paritaprevir/ritonavir were administered orally at 0/0, 6/30, 30/30, or 300/30 mg/kg/day from GD 7 to lactation day 20. There were no treatment related effects at maternal exposures 24-times higher than exposures in humans at the recommended clinical dose.
It is not known whether TECHNIVIE and its metabolites are present in human breast milk, affect human milk production or have effects on the breastfed infant. Unchanged ombitasvir, paritaprevir and its hydrolysis product M13 were the predominant components observed in the milk of lactating rats, without effect on nursing pups [see Data].
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for TECHNIVIE and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from TECHNIVIE or from the underlying maternal condition.
If TECHNIVIE is administered with ribavirin, the nursing mother’s information for ribavirin also applies to this combination regimen. Refer to the ribavirin prescribing information for more information on use during lactation.
No effects of ombitasvir on growth and postnatal development were observed in nursing pups at the highest dose tested, 200 mg/kg/day [see Data]. Maternal systemic exposure (AUC) to ombitasvir was approximately 26 times the exposure in humans at the recommended clinical dose. Although not measured directly, ombitasvir was likely present in the milk of lactating mice in this study, since systemic exposure was observed in nursing pups on post-natal day 21 (approximately 3-16 % of the maternal exposure).
When administered to lactating rats 10 to 11 days after parturition at a dose of 5 mg/kg, the 24 hr AUC in milk was 4 times higher than in plasma and the majority of the radioactivity in the milk was unchanged parent drug (91%).
No effects of paritaprevir/ritonavir on growth and postnatal development were observed in nursing pups at the highest dose tested 300/30 mg/kg/day paritaprevir/ritonavir [see Data]. Maternal systemic exposure (AUC) to paritaprevir was approximately 24 times the exposure in humans at the recommended clinical dose. Although not measured directly, paritaprevir was likely present in the milk of lactating rats at the high dose in this study, since systemic exposure was observed in nursing pups on post-natal day 15 (approximately 0.3 % of the maternal exposure).
When administered to lactating rats 10 to 11 days after parturition at a dose of 30/15 mg/kg paritaprevir/ritonavir, the 24 hr AUC in milk was half that in plasma and the majority of the radioactivity in the milk was the hydrolysis product M13 (84%) followed by unchanged parent drug (16%).
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
If TECHNIVIE is administered with ribavirin, the information for ribavirin with regard to pregnancy testing, contraception, and infertility also applies to this combination regimen. Refer to ribavirin prescribing information for additional information.
Safety and effectiveness of TECHNIVIE in pediatric patients less than 18 years of age have not been established.
No dosage adjustment of TECHNIVIE is warranted in geriatric patients. Clinical studies PEARL-I and AGATE-1 did not include sufficient numbers of patients older than 65 years of age to assess safety or efficacy, or to determine if they responded differently than younger patients.
No dosage adjustment of TECHNIVIE is required in patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A). TECHNIVIE is contraindicated in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B and C) [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
No dosage adjustment of TECHNIVIE is required in patients with mild, moderate or severe renal impairment. TECHNIVIE has not been studied in patients on dialysis. For patients that require ribavirin, refer to the ribavirin prescribing information for information regarding use in patients with renal impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].