Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section
There have been postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis, including fatal cases. These cases had a subtle onset and were accompanied by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, or increased somnolence; however, hypothermia, hypotension and resistant bradyarrhythmias have occurred with severe acidosis. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate concentrations (>5 mmol/Liter), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), and an increased lactate pyruvate ratio; metformin plasma levels generally >5 mcg/mL. Metformin decreases liver uptake of lactate increasing lactate blood levels which may increase risk of lactic acidosis, especially in patients at risk.
If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, general supportive measures should be instituted promptly in a hospital setting, along with immediate discontinuation of JENTADUETO XR. In JENTADUETO XR-treated patients with a diagnosis or strong suspicion of lactic acidosis, prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and remove accumulated metformin (metformin hydrochloride is dialyzable, with clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions). Hemodialysis has often resulted in reversal of symptoms and recovery.
Educate patients and their families about the symptoms of lactic acidosis and if these symptoms occur instruct them to discontinue JENTADUETO XR and report these symptoms to their healthcare provider.
For each of the known and possible risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis, recommendations to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis are provided below:
The postmarketing metformin-associated lactic acidosis cases primarily occurred in patients with significant renal impairment. The risk of metformin accumulation and metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the severity of renal impairment because metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney. Clinical recommendations based upon the patient’s renal function include [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]:
- Before initiating JENTADUETO XR, obtain an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
- JENTADUETO XR is contraindicated in patients with an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
- Initiation of JENTADUETO XR is not recommended in patients with eGFR between 30 – 45 mL/min/1.73 m2.
- Obtain an eGFR at least annually in all patients taking JENTADUETO XR. In patients at increased risk for the development of renal impairment (e.g., the elderly), renal function should be assessed more frequently.
- In patients taking JENTADUETO XR whose eGFR later falls below 45 mL/min/1.73 m2, assess the benefit and risk of continuing therapy.
The concomitant use of JENTADUETO XR with specific drugs may increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis: those that impair renal function, result in significant hemodynamic change, interfere with acid-base balance or increase metformin accumulation (e.g., cationic drugs) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Therefore, consider more frequent monitoring of patients.
Age 65 Or Greater
The risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the patient’s age because elderly patients have a greater likelihood of having hepatic, renal, or cardiac impairment than younger patients. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients [see Use In Specific Populations].
Radiological Studies With Contrast
Administration of intravascular iodinated contrast agents in metformin-treated patients has led to an acute decrease in renal function and the occurrence of lactic acidosis. Stop JENTADUETO XR at the time of, or prior to, an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2; in patients with a history of hepatic impairment, alcoholism, or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Re-evaluate eGFR 48 hours after the imaging procedure, and restart JENTADUETO XR if renal function is stable.
Surgery And Other Procedures
Withholding of food and fluids during surgical or other procedures may increase the risk for volume depletion, hypotension and renal impairment. JENTADUETO XR should be temporarily discontinued while patients have restricted food and fluid intake.
Several of the postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis occurred in the setting of acute congestive heart failure (particularly when accompanied by hypoperfusion and hypoxemia). Cardiovascular collapse (shock), acute myocardial infarction, sepsis, and other conditions associated with hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may also cause prerenal azotemia. When such events occur, discontinue JENTADUETO XR.
Excessive Alcohol Intake
Alcohol potentiates the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism and this may increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis. Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake while receiving JENTADUETO XR.
Patients with hepatic impairment have developed cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis. This may be due to impaired lactate clearance resulting in higher lactate blood levels. Therefore, avoid use of JENTADUETO XR in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease.
There have been postmarketing reports of acute pancreatitis, including fatal pancreatitis, in patients taking linagliptin. Take careful notice of potential signs and symptoms of pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, promptly discontinue JENTADUETO XR and initiate appropriate management. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for the development of pancreatitis while using JENTADUETO XR.
An association between DPP-4 inhibitor treatment and heart failure has been observed in cardiovascular outcomes trials for two other members of the DPP-4 inhibitor class. These trials evaluated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Consider the risks and benefits of JENTADUETO XR prior to initiating treatment in patients at risk for heart failure, such as those with a prior history of heart failure and a history of renal impairment, and observe these patients for signs and symptoms of heart failure during therapy. Advise patients of the characteristic symptoms of heart failure and to immediately report such symptoms. If heart failure develops, evaluate and manage according to current standards of care and consider discontinuation of JENTADUETO XR.
Use With Medications Known To Cause Hypoglycemia
Insulin secretagogues and insulin are known to cause hypoglycemia. The use of linagliptin in combination with an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) was associated with a higher rate of hypoglycemia compared with placebo in a clinical trial [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Therefore, a lower dose of the insulin secretagogue or insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with JENTADUETO XR [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Hypoglycemia does not occur in patients receiving metformin alone under usual circumstances of use, but could occur when caloric intake is deficient, when strenuous exercise is not compensated by caloric supplementation, or during concomitant use with other glucose-lowering agents (such as SUs and insulin) or ethanol. Elderly, debilitated, or malnourished patients, and those with adrenal or pituitary insufficiency or alcohol intoxication are particularly susceptible to hypoglycemic effects. Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in the elderly, and in people who are taking β-adrenergic blocking drugs.
There have been postmarketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with linagliptin (one of the components of JENTADUETO XR). These reactions include anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions. Onset of these reactions occurred within the first 3 months after initiation of treatment with linagliptin, with some reports occurring after the first dose. If a serious hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, discontinue JENTADUETO XR, assess for other potential causes for the event, and institute alternative treatment for diabetes.
Angioedema has also been reported with other dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. Use caution in a patient with a history of angioedema to another DPP-4 inhibitor because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to angioedema with JENTADUETO XR.
Vitamin B12 Levels
In controlled, 29-week clinical trials of metformin a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum vitamin B12 levels, without clinical manifestations, was observed in approximately 7% of metformin-treated patients. Such decrease, possibly due to interference with B12 absorption from the B12-intrinsic factor complex, is, however, very rarely associated with anemia or neurologic manifestations due to the short duration (<1 year) of the clinical trials. This risk may be more relevant to patients receiving long-term treatment with metformin, and adverse hematologic and neurologic reactions have been reported postmarketing. The decrease in vitamin B12 levels appears to be rapidly reversible with discontinuation of metformin or vitamin B12 supplementation. Measurement of hematologic parameters on an annual basis is advised in patients on JENTADUETO XR and any apparent abnormalities should be appropriately investigated and managed. Certain individuals (those with inadequate vitamin B12 or calcium intake or absorption) appear to be predisposed to developing subnormal vitamin B12 levels. In these patients, routine serum vitamin B12 measurement at 2-to 3-year intervals may be useful.
Severe And Disabling Arthralgia
There have been postmarketing reports of severe and disabling arthralgia in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. The time to onset of symptoms following initiation of drug therapy varied from one day to years. Patients experienced relief of symptoms upon discontinuation of the medication. A subset of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms when restarting the same drug or a different DPP-4 inhibitor. Consider DPP-4 inhibitors as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate.
Postmarketing cases of bullous pemphigoid requiring hospitalization have been reported with DPP-4 inhibitor use. In reported cases, patients typically recovered with topical or systemic immunosuppressive treatment and discontinuation of the DPP-4 inhibitor. Tell patients to report development of blisters or erosions while receiving JENTADUETO XR. If bullous pemphigoid is suspected, JENTADUETO XR should be discontinued and referral to a dermatologist should be considered for diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with linagliptin or metformin.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide)
Instruct patients to read the Medication Guide before starting JENTADUETO XR therapy and to reread each time the prescription is renewed. Instruct patients to inform their doctor if they develop any bothersome or unusual symptoms, or if any symptom persists or worsens.
Inform patients of the potential risks and benefits of JENTADUETO XR and of alternative modes of therapy. Also inform patients about the importance of adherence to dietary instructions, regular physical activity, periodic blood glucose monitoring and A1C testing, recognition and management of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and assessment for diabetes complications. Advise patients to seek medical advice promptly during periods of stress such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery, as medication requirements may change.
Inform patients of the risks of lactic acidosis due to the metformin component, its symptoms, and conditions that predispose to its development [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Advise patients to discontinue JENTADUETO XR immediately and to notify their doctor promptly if unexplained hyperventilation, malaise, myalgia, unusual somnolence, slow or irregular heartbeat, sensation of feeling cold (especially in the extremities), or other nonspecific symptoms occur. GI symptoms are common during initiation of metformin treatment and may occur during initiation of JENTADUETO XR therapy; however, advise patients to consult their doctor if they develop unexplained symptoms. Although GI symptoms that occur after stabilization are unlikely to be drug related, such an occurrence of symptoms should be evaluated to determine if it may be due to metformin-induced lactic acidosis or other serious disease.
Inform patients that acute pancreatitis has been reported during postmarketing use of linagliptin. Inform patients that persistent severe abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back, which may or may not be accompanied by vomiting, is the hallmark symptom of acute pancreatitis. Instruct patients to discontinue JENTADUETO XR promptly and contact their physician if persistent severe abdominal pain occurs [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients of the signs and symptoms of heart failure. Before initiating JENTADUETO XR, patients should be asked about a history of heart failure or other risk factors for heart failure including moderate to severe renal impairment. Instruct patients to contact their healthcare provider as soon as possible if they experience symptoms of heart failure, including increasing shortness of breath, rapid increase in weight or swelling of the feet [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Monitoring Of Renal Function
Inform patients about the importance of regular testing of renal function and hematological parameters when receiving treatment with JENTADUETO XR.
Instruct patients to inform their doctor that they are taking JENTADUETO XR prior to any surgical or radiological procedure, as temporary discontinuation of JENTADUETO XR may be required until renal function has been confirmed to be normal [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that the risk of hypoglycemia is increased when JENTADUETO XR is used in combination with an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea), and that a lower dose of the insulin secretagogue may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that serious allergic reactions, such as anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions, have been reported during postmarketing use of linagliptin (one of the components of JENTADUETO XR). If symptoms of allergic reactions (such as rash, skin flaking or peeling, urticaria, swelling of the skin, or swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and throat that may cause difficulty in breathing or swallowing) occur, patients must stop taking JENTADUETO XR and seek medical advice promptly [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Instruct patients to take JENTADUETO XR only as prescribed. If a dose is missed, advise patients not to double their next dose.
Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake, either acute or chronic, while receiving JENTADUETO XR [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients taking JENTADUETO XR that the tablets must be swallowed whole and never split, crushed, dissolved, or chewed and that incompletely dissolved JENTADUETO XR tablets may be eliminated in the feces. Patients should be told that, if they see tablets in feces, they should report this finding to their healthcare provider [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Blood Glucose And A1C Monitoring
Inform patients that response to all diabetic therapies should be monitored by periodic measurements of blood glucose and A1C levels, with a goal of decreasing these levels toward the normal range. A1C monitoring is especially useful for evaluating long-term glycemic control.
Renal Function And Other Hematologic Parameters Monitoring
Inform patients that initial and periodic monitoring of hematologic parameters (e.g., hemoglobin/hematocrit and red blood cell indices) and renal function (e.g., eGFR)
should be performed, at least on an annual basis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Severe And Disabling Arthralgia
Inform patients that severe and disabling joint pain may occur with this class of drugs. The time to onset of symptoms can range from one day to years. Instruct patients to seek medical advice if severe joint pain occurs [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that bullous pemphigoid may occur with this class of drugs. Instruct patients to seek medical advice if blisters or erosions occur [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform female patients that treatment with metformin may result in an unintended pregnancy in some premenopausal anovulatory females due to its effect on ovulation [see Use In Specific Populations].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
No animal studies have been conducted with the combined products in JENTADUETO XR to evaluate carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, or impairment of fertility. General toxicity studies in rats up to 13 weeks were performed with linagliptin/metformin coadministered.
The following data are based on the findings in studies with linagliptin and metformin individually.
Linagliptin did not increase the incidence of tumors in male and female rats in a 2-year study at doses of 6, 18, and 60 mg/kg. The highest dose of 60 mg/kg is approximately 418 times the clinical dose of 5 mg/day based on AUC exposure. Linagliptin did not increase the incidence of tumors in mice in a 2-year study at doses up to 80 mg/kg (males) and 25 mg/kg (females), or approximately 35 and 270 times the clinical dose based on AUC exposure. Higher doses of linagliptin in female mice (80 mg/kg) increased the incidence of lymphoma at approximately 215 times the clinical dose based on AUC exposure.
Linagliptin was not mutagenic or clastogenic with or without metabolic activation in the Ames bacterial mutagenicity assay, a chromosomal aberration test in human lymphocytes, and an in vivo micronucleus assay.
In fertility studies in rats, linagliptin had no adverse effects on early embryonic development, mating, fertility, or bearing live young up to the highest dose of 240 mg/kg (approximately 943 times the clinical dose based on AUC exposure).
Long-term carcinogenicity studies have been performed in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 150, 300, and 450 mg/kg/day in males and 150, 450, 900, and 1200 mg/kg/day in females. These doses are both approximately 2, 4, and 8 times in males, and 3, 7, 12, and 16 times in females of the maximum recommended human daily dose of 2000 mg/kg/day based on body surface area comparisons. No evidence of carcinogenicity with metformin was found in either male or female rats. A carcinogenicity study was also performed in Tg.AC transgenic mice at doses of up to 2000 mg/kg/day applied dermally. No evidence of carcinogenicity was observed in male or female mice.
Genotoxicity assessments in the Ames test, gene mutation test (mouse lymphoma cells), chromosomal aberrations test (human lymphocytes) and in vivo mouse micronucleus tests were negative.
Fertility of male or female rats was unaffected by metformin when administered at doses as high as 600 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 2 times the MRHD based on body surface area comparisons.
Use In Specific Populations
The limited data with JENTADUETO XR and linagliptin use in pregnant women are not sufficient to inform a JENTADUETO XR-associated or linagliptin-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. Published studies with metformin use during pregnancy have not reported a clear association with metformin and major birth defect or miscarriage risk [see Data]. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations].
In animal reproduction studies, no adverse developmental effects were observed when the combination of linagliptin and metformin was administered to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis at doses similar to the maximum recommended clinical dose, based on exposure [see Data].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6-10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with a HbA1c>7 and has been reported to be as high as 20-25% in women with HbA1c>10. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, still birth, and macrosomia related morbidity.
Published data from post-marketing studies have not reported a clear association with metformin and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes when metformin was used during pregnancy. However, these studies cannot definitely establish the absence of any metformin-associated risk because of methodological limitations, including small sample size and inconsistent comparator groups.
Linagliptin and metformin, the components of JENTADUETO XR, were coadministered to pregnant Wistar Han rats during the period of organogenesis. No adverse developmental outcome was observed at doses similar to the maximum recommended clinical dose, based on exposure. At higher doses associated with maternal toxicity, the metformin component of the combination was associated with an increased incidence of fetal rib and scapula malformations at ≥ 9-times a 2000 mg clinical dose, based on exposure.
No adverse developmental outcome was observed when linagliptin was administered to pregnant Wistar Han rats and Himalayan rabbits during the period of organogenesis at doses up to 240 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg, respectively. These doses represent approximately 943 times (rats) and 1943 times (rabbits) the 5 mg clinical dose, based on exposure. No adverse functional, behavioral, or reproductive outcome was observed in offspring following administration of linagliptin to Wistar Han rats from gestation day 6 to lactation day 21 at a dose 49 times the 5 mg clinical dose, based on exposure.
Metformin hydrochloride did not cause adverse developmental effects when administered to pregnant rabbits up to 600 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis. This represents an exposure of approximately 6-times a clinical dose of 2000 mg, based on body surface area.
There is no information regarding the presence of JENTADUETO XR or linagliptin in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. However, linagliptin is present in rat milk. Limited published studies report that metformin is present in human milk [see Data]. However, there is insufficient information to determine the effects of metformin on the breastfed infant and no available information on the effects of metformin on milk production. Therefore, the developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for JENTADUETO XR and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from JENTADUETO XR or from the underlying maternal condition.
Published clinical lactation studies report that metformin is present in human milk which resulted in infant doses approximately 0.11% to 1% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 0.13 and 1. However, the studies were not designed to definitely establish the risk of use of metformin during lactation because of small sample size and limited adverse event data collected in infants.
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
Discuss the potential for unintended pregnancy with premenopausal women as therapy with metformin may result in ovulation in some anovulatory women.
Safety and effectiveness of JENTADUETO XR in pediatric patients under 18 years of age have not been established.
Linagliptin is minimally excreted by the kidney; however, metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
There were 4040 type 2 diabetes patients treated with linagliptin 5 mg from 15 clinical trials of linagliptin; 1085 (27%) patients were 65 years and over, while 131 (3%) were 75 years and over. Of these patients, 2566 were enrolled in 12 double-blind placebo-controlled studies; 591 (23%) were 65 years and over, while 82 (3%) were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between patients 65 years and over and younger patients. Therefore, no dose adjustment is recommended in the elderly population. While clinical studies of linagliptin have not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Controlled clinical studies of metformin did not include sufficient numbers of elderly patients to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients, although other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and young patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy and the higher risk of lactic acidosis. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis increases with the degree of renal impairment. JENTADUETO XR is contraindicated in severe renal impairment: patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
If JENTADUETO XR is discontinued due to evidence of renal impairment, linagliptin may be continued as a single entity tablet at the same total daily dose of 5 mg. No dose adjustment of linagliptin is recommended in patients with renal impairment.
Use of metformin in patients with hepatic impairment has been associated with some cases of lactic acidosis. JENTADUETO XR is not recommended in patients with hepatic impairment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].