Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.
Fatal and serious myelosuppression can occur with INQOVI. Based on laboratory values, new or worsening thrombocytopenia occurred in 82% of patients, with Grade 3 or 4 occurring in 76%. Neutropenia occurred in 73% of patients, with Grade 3 or 4 occurring in 71%. Anemia occurred in 71% of patients, with Grade 3 or 4 occurring in 55%. Febrile neutropenia occurred in 33% of patients, with Grade 3 or 4 occurring in 32%. Myelosuppression (thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, anemia, and febrile neutropenia) is the most frequent cause of INQOVI dose reduction or interruption, occurring in 36% of patients. Permanent discontinuation due to myelosuppression (febrile neutropenia) occurred in 1% of patients. Myelosuppression and worsening neutropenia may occur more frequently in the first or second treatment cycles and may not necessarily indicate progression of underlying MDS.
Fatal and serious infectious complications can occur with INQOVI. Pneumonia occurred in 21% of patients, with Grade 3 or 4 occurring in 15%. Sepsis occurred in 14% of patients, with Grade 3 or 4 occurring in 11%. Fatal pneumonia occurred in 1% of patients, fatal sepsis in 1%, and fatal septic shock in 1% [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Obtain complete blood cell counts prior to initiation of INQOVI, prior to each cycle, and as clinically indicated to monitor response and toxicity. Administer growth factors and anti-infective therapies for treatment or prophylaxis as appropriate. Delay the next cycle and resume at the same or reduced dose as recommended [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Based on findings from human data, animal studies, and its mechanism of action, INQOVI can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. In nonclinical studies with decitabine in mice and rats, decitabine was teratogenic, fetotoxic, and embryotoxic at doses less than the recommended human dose.
Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with INQOVI and for 6 months after the last dose. Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with INQOVI and for 3 months after the last dose [see Use In Specific Populations].
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION).
Advise patients of the risk of myelosuppression and to report any symptoms of fever, infection, anemia, or bleeding to their healthcare provider as soon as possible. Advise patients for the need for laboratory monitoring [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to inform their healthcare provider of a known or suspected pregnancy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Use In Specific Populations].
Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with INQOVI and for 6 months after the last dose [see Use In Specific Populations].
Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with INQOVI and for 3 months after the last dose [see Use In Specific Populations, Nonclinical Toxicology].
Advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with INQOVI and for 2 weeks after the last dose [see Use In Specific Populations].
Advise patients to take INQOVI at approximately the same time each day on an empty stomach. Instruct patients to avoid eating for at least 2 hours before and 2 hours after taking INQOVI. Advise patients on what to do when a dose is missed or vomited [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Carcinogenicity studies with decitabine, cedazuridine, or their combination have not been conducted.
INQOVI is genotoxic. Decitabine increased mutation frequency in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells, and mutations were produced in an E. coli lac-I transgene in colonic DNA of decitabine-treated mice. Decitabine also caused chromosomal rearrangements in larvae of fruit flies. Cedazuridine was genotoxic in a reverse bacterial mutation assay (Ames assay) and in an in vitro chromosomal aberration study using human lymphocytes.
Fertility and repeat-dose toxicity studies in animals showed adverse outcomes on reproductive function and fertility. In male mice given intraperitoneal injections of 0.15, 0.3, or 0.45 mg/m² decitabine (approximately 0.3% to 1% the recommended clinical dose) 3 times a week for 7 weeks, testes weights were reduced, abnormal histology was observed, and significant decreases in sperm number were found at doses ≥ 0.3 mg/m². In females mated to males dosed with ≥ 0.3 mg/m² decitabine, pregnancy rate was reduced, and preimplantation loss was significantly increased.
Decitabine was administered orally to rats at 0.75, 2.5, or 7.5 mg/kg/day in cycles of 5-days-on/23-daysoff for a total of 90 days. Low testes and epididymis weights, abnormal histology, and reduced sperm number were observed at doses ≥ 0.75 mg/kg. The dose of 0.75 mg/kg resulted in exposures in animals that were approximately 3 times the exposure in patients at the recommended clinical dose based on AUC.
Cedazuridine was administered orally to mice at 100, 300, or 1,000 mg/kg/day in cycles of 7-days-on/21days-off for a total of 91 days. Adverse findings in male and female reproductive organs were observed at the 1,000 mg/kg dose and included abnormal histology in the testes and epididymis, reduced sperm number, and abnormal histology in the ovary. The dose of 1,000 mg/kg/day resulted in exposures in animals that were approximately 108 times the exposure in patients at the recommended clinical dose. Adverse effects in male and female reproductive organs were reversible following a recovery period.
Use In Specific Populations
Based on findings from human data, animal studies, and its mechanism of action [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY], INQOVI can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. A single published case report of intravenous decitabine use throughout the first trimester during pregnancy describes adverse developmental outcomes, including major birth defects (structural abnormalities). In animal reproduction studies, intravenous administration of decitabine to pregnant mice and rats during organogenesis at doses approximately 7% of the recommended human dose on a body surface area (mg/m²) basis caused adverse developmental outcomes, including increased embryo-fetal mortality, alterations to growth, and structural abnormalities (see Data). Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
There are no available data on INQOVI use in pregnant women.
A single published case report of intravenous decitabine pregnancy exposure in a 39-year-old woman with a hematologic malignancy described multiple structural abnormalities after 6 cycles of therapy in the 18th week of gestation. These abnormalities included holoprosencephaly, absence of nasal bone, mid-facial deformity, cleft lip and palate, polydactyly, and rocker-bottom feet. The pregnancy was terminated.
No reproductive or developmental toxicity studies have been conducted with INQOVI or cedazuridine.
In utero exposure to decitabine causes temporal-related defects in the rat and/or mouse, which include growth suppression, exencephaly, defective skull bones, rib/sternabrae defects, phocomelia, digit defects, micrognathia, gastroschisis, and micromelia. Decitabine inhibits proliferation and increases apoptosis of neural progenitor cells of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) and induces palatal clefting in the developing murine fetus. Studies in mice have also shown that decitabine administration during osteoblastogenesis (Day 10 of gestation) induces bone loss in offspring.
In mice exposed to single intraperitoneal decitabine injections (0, 0.9 and 3.0 mg/m², approximately 2% and 7% of the recommended daily clinical dose, respectively) over gestation Days 8, 9, 10 or 11, no maternal toxicity was observed, but reduced fetal survival was observed after treatment at 3 mg/m² and decreased fetal weight was observed at both dose levels. The 3 mg/m² dose elicited characteristic fetal defects for each treatment day, including supernumerary ribs (both dose levels), fused vertebrae and ribs, cleft palate, vertebral defects, hind-limb defects, and digital defects of fore-and hind-limbs.
In rats given a single intraperitoneal injection of 2.4, 3.6 or 6 mg/m² decitabine (approximately 5, 8, or 13% the daily recommended clinical dose, respectively) on gestation Days 9-12, no maternal toxicity was observed. No live fetuses were seen at any dose when decitabine was injected on gestation Day 9. A significant decrease in fetal survival and reduced fetal weight at doses greater than 3.6 mg/m² was seen when decitabine was given on gestation Day 10. Increased incidences of vertebral and rib anomalies were seen at all dose levels, and induction of exophthalmia, exencephaly, and cleft palate were observed at 6.0 mg/m². Increased incidence of foredigit defects was seen in fetuses at doses greater than 3.6 mg/m². Reduced size and ossification of long bones of the fore-limb and hind-limb were noted at 6 mg/m².
The effect of decitabine on postnatal development and reproductive capacity was evaluated in mice administered a single 3 mg/m² intraperitoneal injection (approximately 7% the recommended daily clinical dose) on Day 10 of gestation. Body weights of males and females exposed in utero to decitabine were significantly reduced relative to controls at all postnatal time points. No consistent effect on fertility was seen when female mice exposed in utero were mated to untreated males. Untreated females mated to males exposed in utero showed decreased fertility at 3 and 5 months of age (36% and 0% pregnancy rate, respectively). Follow up studies indicated that treatment of pregnant mice with decitabine on gestation Day 10 was associated with a reduced pregnancy rate resulting from effects on sperm production in the F1-generation.
There are no data on the presence of cedazuridine, decitabine, or their metabolites in human milk or on their effects on the breastfed child or milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in the breastfed child, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with INQOVI and for at least 2 weeks after the last dose.
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
INQOVI can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use In Specific Populations].
Verify the pregnancy status in females of reproductive potential prior to initiating INQOVI.
Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with INQOVI and for 6 months after the last dose.
Based on genotoxicity findings, advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with INQOVI and for 3 months after the last dose [see Nonclinical Toxicology].
Based on findings of decitabine and cedazuridine in animals, INQOVI may impair male fertility [see Nonclinical Toxicology]. The reversibility of the effect on fertility is unknown.
The safety and effectiveness of INQOVI have not been established in pediatric patients.
Of the 208 patients in clinical studies who received INQOVI, 75% were age 65 years and older, while 36% were age 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between patients age 65 years and older, 75 years and older, and younger patients.
No dosage modification of INQOVI is recommended for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CLcr] of 30 to 89 mL/min based on Cockcroft-Gault). Due to the potential for increased adverse reactions, monitor patients with moderate renal impairment (CLcr 30 to 59 mL/min) frequently for adverse reactions. INQOVI has not been studied in patients with severe renal impairment (CLcr 15 to 29 mL/min) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD: CLcr <15 mL/min) [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].