Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section
Intraocular Pressure Increase
Prolonged use of corticosteroids may result in glaucoma with damage to the optic nerve, defects in visual acuity and fields of vision. Steroids should be used with caution in the presence of glaucoma. Intraocular pressure should be monitored during the course of the treatment.
Corticosteroids may suppress the host response and thus increase the hazard for secondary ocular infections. In acute purulent conditions, steroids may mask infection and enhance existing infection [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Use of ocular steroids may prolong the course and may exacerbate the severity of many viral infections of the eye (including herpes simplex) [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Fungus invasion must be considered in any persistent corneal ulceration where a steroid has been used or is in use. Fungal culture should be taken when appropriate [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
The use of steroids after cataract surgery may delay healing and increase the incidence of bleb formation.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
No adequate studies in animals have been conducted to determine whether DEXTENZA has the potential for carcinogenesis.
Dexamethasone was not mutagenic in the Ames/Salmonella assay, both with and without metabolic activation. Dexamethasone was genotoxic in two in vitro assays using human lymphocytes (chromosomal aberration assay and sister chromatid exchange assay) and was genotoxic in two mouse in vivo assays (micronucleus assay and sister chromatid exchange assay).
Fertility studies have not been conducted in animals using DEXTENZA.
Use In Specific Populations
There are no adequate or well-controlled studies with DEXTENZA in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. In animal reproduction studies, administration of topical ocular dexamethasone to pregnant mice and rabbits during organogenesis produced embryofetal lethality, cleft palate and multiple visceral malformations [see Animal Data].
Topical ocular administration of 0.15% dexamethasone (0.75 mg/kg/day) on gestational days 10 to 13 produced embryofetal lethality and a high incidence of cleft palate in a mouse study. A daily dose of 0.75 mg/kg/day in the mouse is approximately 5 times the entire dose of dexamethasone in the DEXTENZA product, on a mg/m2 basis. In a rabbit study, topical ocular administration of 0.1% dexamethasone throughout organogenesis (0.36 mg /day, on gestational day 6 followed by 0.24 mg/day on gestational days 7-18) produced intestinal anomalies, intestinal aplasia, gastroschisis and hypoplastic kidneys. A daily dose of 0.24 mg/day is approximately 6 times the entire dose of dexamethasone in the DEXTENZA product, on a mg/m2 basis.
Systemically administered corticosteroids appear in human milk and could suppress growth and interfere with endogenous corticosteroid production; however the systemic concentration of dexamethasone following administration of DEXTENZA is low [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. There is no information regarding the presence of DEXTENZA in human milk, the effects of the drug on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production to inform risk of DEXTENZA to an infant during lactation. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for DEXTENZA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from DEXTENZA.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
No overall differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and younger patients.