Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section
CAROSPIR can cause hyperkalemia. This risk is increased by impaired renal function or concomitant potassium supplementation, potassium-containing salt substitutes or drugs that increase potassium, such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Monitor serum potassium within 1 week of initiation or titration of CAROSPIR and regularly thereafter. Closer monitoring may be needed when CAROSPIR is given with other drugs that cause hyperkalemia or in patients with impaired renal function.
If hyperkalemia occurs, decrease the dose or discontinue CAROSPIR and treat hyperkalemia.
Hypotension And Worsening Renal Function
Excessive diuresis may cause symptomatic dehydration, hypotension and worsening renal function, particularly in salt-depleted patients or those taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers. Worsening of renal function can also occur with concomitant use of nephrotoxic drugs (e.g., aminoglycosides, cisplatin, and NSAIDs). Monitor volume status and renal function periodically.
Electrolyte And Metabolic Abnormalities
In addition to causing hyperkalemia, CAROSPIR can cause hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hypochloremic alkalosis, and hyperglycemia. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia can occur and rarely gout is precipitated. Monitor serum electrolytes, uric acid and blood glucose periodically.
CAROSPIR can cause gynecomastia. In RALES, patients with heart failure treated with a mean dose of 26 mg of spironolactone once daily, about 9% of the male subjects developed gynecomastia. The risk of gynecomastia increases in a dose-dependent manner with an onset that varies widely from 1-2 months to over a year. Gynecomastia is usually reversible.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Orally administered spironolactone has been shown to be a tumorigen in dietary administration studies performed in rats, with its proliferative effects manifested on endocrine organs and the liver. In an 18-month study using doses of about 50, 150, and 500 mg/kg/day, there were statistically significant increases in benign adenomas of the thyroid and testes and, in male rats, a dose-related increase in proliferative changes in the liver (including hepatocytomegaly and hyperplastic nodules). In a 24-month study in which the same strain of rat was administered doses of about 10, 30, 100, and 150 mg spironolactone/kg/day, the range of proliferative effects included significant increases in hepatocellular adenomas and testicular interstitial cell tumors in males, and significant increases in thyroid follicular cell adenomas and carcinomas in both sexes. There was also a statistically significant, but not dose-related, increase in benign uterine endometrial stromal polyps in females. No increased tumors were seen at doses of 100 mg/kg/day. This dose represents about 5-times the human recommended daily dose of 200 mg/day, when based on body surface area.
Neither spironolactone nor potassium canrenoate produced mutagenic effects in tests using bacteria or yeast. In the absence of metabolic activation, neither spironolactone nor potassium canrenoate has been shown to be mutagenic in mammalian tests in vitro. In the presence of metabolic activation, Spironolactone has been reported to be negative in some mammalian mutagenicity tests in vitro and inconclusive (but slightly positive) for mutagenicity in other mammalian tests in vitro. In the presence of metabolic activation, potassium canrenoate has been reported to test positive for mutagenicity in some mammalian tests in vitro, inconclusive in others, and negative in still others.
Impairment Of Fertility
In a three-litter reproduction study in which female rats received dietary doses of 15 and 50 mg spironolactone/kg/day, there were no effects on mating and fertility, but there was a small increase in incidence of stillborn pups at 50 mg/kg/day. When injected into female rats (100 mg/kg/day for 7 days, i.p.), spironolactone was found to increase the length of the estrous cycle by prolonging diestrus during treatment and inducing constant diestrus during a two-week post-treatment observation period. These effects were associated with retarded ovarian follicle development and a reduction in circulating estrogen levels, which would be expected to impair mating, fertility, and fecundity. Spironolactone (100 mg/kg/day), administered i.p. to female mice during a two-week cohabitation period with untreated males, decreased the number of mated mice that conceived (effect shown to be caused by an inhibition of ovulation) and decreased the number of implanted embryos in those that became pregnant (effect shown to be caused by an inhibition of implantation), and at 200 mg/kg, also increased the latency period to mating.
Use In Specific Populations
Based on mechanism of action and findings in animal studies, spironolactone may affect sex differentiation of the male during embryogenesis [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY)]. Rat embryofetal studies report feminization of male fetuses and endocrine dysfunction in females exposed to spironolactone in utero. Limited available data from published case reports and case series did not demonstrate an association of major malformations or other adverse pregnancy outcomes with spironolactone. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with heart failure, cirrhosis and poorly controlled hypertension during pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations). Because of the potential risk to the male fetus due to anti-androgenic properties of spironolactone and animal data, avoid spironolactone in pregnant women or advise a pregnant woman of the potential risk to a male fetus.
The estimated background risk of major congenital anomalies and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major congenital anomalies and miscarriage in the clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk
Pregnant women with congestive heart failure are at increased risk for preterm birth. Stroke volume and heart rate increase during pregnancy, increasing cardiac output, especially during the first trimester. Clinical classification of heart disease may worsen with pregnancy and lead to maternal death. Closely monitor pregnant patients for destabilization of their heart failure.
Pregnant women with symptomatic cirrhosis generally have poor outcomes including hepatic failure, variceal hemorrhage, preterm delivery, fetal growth restriction and maternal death. Outcomes are worse with coexisting esophageal varices. Pregnant women with cirrhosis of the liver should be carefully monitored and managed accordingly.
Hypertension in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery, and delivery complications (e.g., need for cesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage). Hypertension increases the fetal risk for intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine death.
Teratology studies with spironolactone have been carried out in mice and rabbits at doses of up to 20 mg/kg/day. On a body surface area basis, this dose in the mouse is substantially below the maximum recommended human dose and, in the rabbit, approximates the maximum recommended human dose. No teratogenic or other embryo toxic effects were observed in mice, but the 20 mg/kg dose caused an increased rate of resorption and a lower number of live fetuses in rabbits. Because of its antiandrogenic activity and the requirement of testosterone for male morphogenesis, CAROSPIR may have the potential for adversely affecting sex differentiation of the male during embryogenesis. When administered to rats at 200 mg/kg/day, a dose 10 times the human dose of 200 mg/day, when based on body surface area, between gestation days 13 and 21 (late embryogenesis and fetal development), feminization of male fetuses was observed. Offspring exposed during late pregnancy to 50 and 100 mg/kg/day doses of spironolactone exhibited changes in the reproductive tract including dose-dependent decreases in weights of the ventral prostate and seminal vesicle in males, ovaries and uteri that were enlarged in females, and other indications of endocrine dysfunction, that persisted into adulthood. Spironolactone (CAROSPIR) has known endocrine effects in animals including progestational and antiandrogenic effects.
Spironolactone is not present in breastmilk; however, limited data from a lactating woman at 17 days postpartum reports the presence of the active metabolite, canrenone, in human breast milk in low amounts that are expected to be clinically inconsequential. In this case, there were no adverse effects reported for the breastfed infant after short term exposure to spironolactone; however, long term effects on a breastfed infant are unknown. There are no data on spironolactone effects on milk production. Consider the developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding along with the mother’s clinical need for spironolactone and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from spironolactone or from the underlying maternal condition.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
CAROSPIR is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, monitor renal function.
Use In Renal Impairment
CAROSPIR is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Patients with renal impairment are at increased risk of hyperkalemia. Monitor potassium closely.
Use In Hepatic Impairment
CAROSPIR can cause sudden alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance which may precipitate impaired neurological function, worsening hepatic encephalopathy and coma in patients with hepatic disease with cirrhosis and ascites. In these patients, initiate CAROSPIR in the hospital [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Clearance of spironolactone and its metabolites is reduced in patients with cirrhosis. In patients with cirrhosis, start with lowest initial dose and titrate slowly [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].