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Background:    “Monobactams are beta-lactam compounds wherein the beta-lactam ring is alone and not fused to another ring (in contrast to most other beta-lactams, which have at least two rings). They work only against aerobic Gram negative bacteria (e.g., Neisseria, Pseudomonas ).”

“The only commercially available monobactam antibiotic is aztreonam. They have no cross-hypersensitivity reactions with penicillin but like penicillins can trigger seizures in patients with history of seizures. ”    [Source:  ]

Infectious Disease -ALL Agents (INDEX)

Antimicrobials – Infectious Disease

Aminoglycosides Ansamycins/Rifamycins Antibiotics (Other)
Anti- Fungals Anti-Herpetic Agents Anti-Influenza Agents
Anti-Malarials Carbapenems Cephalosporins
Fluoroquinolones Glycopeptides HIV (anti) Agents
Lincosamides Lipopeptides Macrolides
Monobactams Oxazolidones Penicillins
Sulfonamide antibiotics Tetracyclines Tuberculosis (anti) agents

Aztreonam (Azactam ®)

Mechanism of Action
Aztreonam is a bactericidal agent that acts by inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Aztreonam has activity in the presence of some beta-lactamases, both penicillinases and cephalosporinases, of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

Mechanism of Resistance
Resistance to aztreonam is primarily through hydrolysis by beta-lactamase, alteration of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), and decreased permeability.

Interaction with Other Antimicrobials
Aztreonam and aminoglycosides have been shown to be synergistic in vitro against most strains of P. aeruginosa, many strains of Enterobacteriaceae, and other Gram-negative aerobic bacilli.

Aztreonam has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.

Aerobic Gram-negative microorganisms:
Citrobacter species
Enterobacter species
Escherichia coli
Haemophilus influenzae (including ampicillin-resistant and other penicillinase-producing strains)
Klebsiella oxytoca
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Proteus mirabilis
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Serratia species

The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown. At least 90% of the following microorganisms exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for aztreonam. However, the efficacy of aztreonam in treating clinical infections due to these microorganisms has not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.

Aerobic Gram-negative microorganisms:
Aeromonas hydrophila
Morganella morganii
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including penicillinase-producing strains)
Pasteurella multocida
Proteus vulgaris
Providencia stuartii
Providencia rettgeri
Yersinia enterocolitica

Aztreonam and aminoglycosides have been shown to be synergistic in vitro against most strains of P. aeruginosa, many strains of Enterobacteriaceae, and other Gram-negative aerobic bacilli.

Alterations of the anaerobic intestinal flora by broad-spectrum antibiotics may decrease colonization resistance, thus permitting overgrowth of potential pathogens, eg, Candida and Clostridium species. Aztreonam has little effect on the anaerobic intestinal microflora in in vitro studies. Clostridium difficile and its cytotoxin were not found in animal models following administration of aztreonam.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of AZACTAM (aztreonam for injection, USP) and other antibacterial drugs, AZACTAM should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

AZACTAM is indicated for the treatment of the following infections caused by susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms:

Urinary Tract Infections (complicated and uncomplicated), including pyelonephritis and cystitis (initial and recurrent) caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca*, Citrobacter species*, and Serratia marcescens*.

Lower Respiratory Tract Infections, including pneumonia and bronchitis caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter species, and Serratia marcescens*.

Septicemia caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis*, Serratia marcescens*, and Enterobacter species.

Skin and Skin-Structure Infections, including those associated with postoperative wounds, ulcers, and burns, caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Citrobacter species*.

Intra-abdominal Infections, including peritonitis caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species including K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter species including E. cloacae*, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter species* including C. freundii*, and Serratia species* including S. marcescens*.

Gynecologic Infections, including endometritis and pelvic cellulitis caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae*, Enterobacter species* including E. cloacae*, and Proteus mirabilis*.

AZACTAM is indicated for adjunctive therapy to surgery in the management of infections caused by susceptible organisms, including abscesses, infections complicating hollow viscus perforations, cutaneous infections, and infections of serous surfaces. AZACTAM is effective against most of the commonly encountered Gram-negative aerobic pathogens seen in general surgery.

* Efficacy for this organism in this organ system was studied in fewer than 10 infections.

Concurrent Therapy

Concurrent initial therapy with other antimicrobial agents and AZACTAM is recommended before the causative organism(s) is known in seriously ill patients who are also at risk of having an infection due to Gram-positive aerobic pathogens. If anaerobic organisms are also suspected as etiologic agents, therapy should be initiated using an anti-anaerobic agent concurrently with AZACTAM (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Certain antibiotics (eg, cefoxitin, imipenem) may induce high levels of beta-lactamase in vitro in some Gram-negative aerobes such as Enterobacter and Pseudomonas species, resulting in antagonism to many beta-lactam antibiotics including aztreonam. These in vitro findings suggest that such beta-lactamase-inducing antibiotics not be used concurrently with aztreonam. Following identification and susceptibility testing of the causative organism(s), appropriate antibiotic therapy should be continued.

Both animal and human data suggest that AZACTAM (aztreonam for injection, USP) is rarely cross-reactive with other beta-lactam antibiotics and weakly immunogenic. Treatment with aztreonam can result in hypersensitivity reactions in patients with or without prior exposure.

Careful inquiry should be made to determine whether the patient has any history of hypersensitivity reactions to any allergens.

While cross-reactivity of aztreonam with other beta-lactam antibiotics is rare, this drug should be administered with caution to any patient with a history of hypersensitivity to beta-lactams (eg, penicillins, cephalosporins, and/or carbapenems). Treatment with aztreonam can result in hypersensitivity reactions in patients with or without prior exposure to aztreonam. If an allergic reaction to aztreonam occurs, discontinue the drug and institute supportive treatment as appropriate (eg, maintenance of ventilation, pressor amines, antihistamines, corticosteroids). Serious hypersensitivity reactions may require epinephrine and other emergency measures.

Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including AZACTAM, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin-producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over 2 months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Rare cases of toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported in association with aztreonam in patients undergoing bone marrow transplant with multiple risk factors including sepsis, radiation therapy, and other concomitantly administered drugs associated with toxic epidermal necrolysis.


Dosage in Adult Patients
AZACTAM may be administered intravenously or by intramuscular injection. Dosage and route of administration should be determined by susceptibility of the causative organisms, severity and site of infection, and the condition of the patient.
Azactam Dosage Guidelines for Adults*

Type of Infection Dose Frequency
Urinary tract infections 500 mg or 1 g 8 or 12
Moderately severe systemic infections 1 g or 2 g 8 or 12
Severe systemic or life-threatening infections 2 g 6 or 8

*Maximum recommended dose is 8 g per day.

Because of the serious nature of infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, dosage of 2 g every six or eight hours is recommended, at least upon initiation of therapy, in systemic infections caused by this organism.

The intravenous route is recommended for patients requiring single doses greater than 1 g or those with bacterial septicemia, localized parenchymal abscess (eg, intra-abdominal abscess), peritonitis, or other severe systemic or life-threatening infections.

The duration of therapy depends on the severity of infection. Generally, AZACTAM should be continued for at least 48 hours after the patient becomes asymptomatic or evidence of bacterial eradication has been obtained. Persistent infections may require treatment for several weeks. Doses smaller than those indicated should not be used.

Renal Impairment in Adult Patients
Prolonged serum levels of aztreonam may occur in patients with transient or persistent renal insufficiency. Therefore, the dosage of AZACTAM should be halved in patients with estimated creatinine clearances between 10 and 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 after an initial loading dose of 1 or 2 g.

When only the serum creatinine concentration is available, the following formula (based on sex, weight, and age of the patient) may be used to approximate the creatinine clearance (Clcr). The serum creatinine should represent a steady state of renal function.

Males: Clcr = weight (kg) × (140-age) / [ 72 × serum creatinine (mg/dL)]
Females: 0.85 × above value

In patients with severe renal failure (creatinine clearance less than 10 mL/min/1.73 m2), such as those supported by hemodialysis, the usual dose of 500 mg, 1 g, or 2 g should be given initially. The maintenance dose should be one-fourth of the usual initial dose given at the usual fixed interval of 6, 8, or 12 hours. For serious or life-threatening infections, in addition to the maintenance doses, one-eighth of the initial dose should be given after each hemodialysis session.

Dosage in the Elderly
Renal status is a major determinant of dosage in the elderly; these patients in particular may have diminished renal function. Serum creatinine may not be an accurate determinant of renal status. Therefore, as with all antibiotics eliminated by the kidneys, estimates of creatinine clearance should be obtained and appropriate dosage modifications made if necessary.

Dosage in Pediatric Patients

AZACTAM should be administered intravenously to pediatric patients with normal renal function. There are insufficient data regarding intramuscular administration to pediatric patients or dosing in pediatric patients with renal impairment.

Type of Infection Dose Frequency
Mild to moderate infections 30 mg/kg 8
Moderate to severe infections 30 mg/kg 6 or 8

** Maximum recommended dose is 120 mg/kg/day.

A total of 612 pediatric patients aged 1 month to 12 years were enrolled in uncontrolled clinical trials of aztreonam in the treatment of serious Gram-negative infections, including urinary tract, lower respiratory tract, skin and skin-structure, and intra-abdominal infections.

Preparation of Parenteral Solutions
Upon the addition of the diluent to the container, contents should be shaken immediately and vigorously. Constituted solutions are not for multiple-dose use; should the entire volume in the container not be used for a single dose, the unused solution must be discarded.

Depending upon the concentration of aztreonam and diluent used, constituted AZACTAM yields a colorless to light straw yellow solution which may develop a slight pink tint on standing (potency is not affected). Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration whenever solution and container permit.

Admixtures with Other Antibiotics
Intravenous infusion solutions of AZACTAM not exceeding 2% w/v prepared with Sodium Chloride Injection, USP 0.9% or Dextrose Injection, USP 5%, to which clindamycin phosphate, gentamicin sulfate, tobramycin sulfate, or cefazolin sodium have been added at concentrations usually used clinically, are stable for up to 48 hours at room temperature or 7 days under refrigeration. Ampicillin sodium admixtures with aztreonam in Sodium Chloride Injection, USP 0.9% are stable for 24 hours at room temperature and 48 hours under refrigeration; stability in Dextrose Injection, USP 5% is 2 hours at room temperature and 8 hours under refrigeration.

Aztreonam-cloxacillin sodium and aztreonam-vancomycin hydrochloride admixtures are stable in Dianeal 137 (Peritoneal Dialysis Solution) with 4.25% Dextrose for up to 24 hours at room temperature.

Aztreonam is incompatible with nafcillin sodium, cephradine, and metronidazole.

Other admixtures are not recommended since compatibility data are not available.

Intravenous Solutions
For Bolus Injection: The contents of an AZACTAM 15 mL capacity vial should be constituted with 6 to 10 mL Sterile Water for Injection, USP.

For Infusion: If the contents of a 15 mL capacity vial are to be transferred to an appropriate infusion solution, each gram of aztreonam should be initially constituted with at least 3 mL Sterile Water for Injection, USP. Further dilution may be obtained with one of the following intravenous infusion solutions:

Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, 0.9%
Ringer’s Injection, USP
Lactated Ringer’s Injection, USP
Dextrose Injection, USP, 5% or 10%
Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, 5%:0.9%, 5%:0.45%, or 5%:0.2%
Sodium Lactate Injection, USP (M/6 Sodium Lactate)
Ionosol® B and 5% Dextrose
Isolyte® E
Isolyte® E with 5% Dextrose
Isolyte® M with 5% Dextrose
Normosol®-R and 5% Dextrose
Normosol®-M and 5% Dextrose
Mannitol Injection, USP, 5% or 10%
Lactated Ringer’s and 5% Dextrose Injection
Plasma-Lyte M and 5% Dextrose

Intramuscular Solutions
The contents of an AZACTAM 15 mL capacity vial should be constituted with at least 3 mL of an appropriate diluent per gram aztreonam. The following diluents may be used:

Sterile Water for Injection, USP
Sterile Bacteriostatic Water for Injection, USP (with benzyl alcohol or with methyl- and propylparabens)
Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, 0.9%
Bacteriostatic Sodium Chloride Injection, USP (with benzyl alcohol)

Stability of Intravenous and Intramuscular Solutions
AZACTAM solutions for intravenous infusion at concentrations not exceeding 2% w/v must be used within 48 hours following constitution if kept at controlled room temperature (59°F-86°F/15°C-30°C) or within 7 days if refrigerated (36°F-46°F/2°C-8°C).

AZACTAM solutions at concentrations exceeding 2% w/v, except those prepared with Sterile Water for Injection, USP or Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, should be used promptly after preparation; the 2 excepted solutions must be used within 48 hours if stored at controlled room temperature or within 7 days if refrigerated.

Intravenous Administration
Bolus Injection: A bolus injection may be used to initiate therapy. The dose should be slowly injected directly into a vein, or the tubing of a suitable administration set, over a period of 3 to 5 minutes (see next paragraph regarding flushing of tubing).

Infusion: With any intermittent infusion of aztreonam and another drug with which it is not pharmaceutically compatible, the common delivery tube should be flushed before and after delivery of aztreonam with any appropriate infusion solution compatible with both drug solutions; the drugs should not be delivered simultaneously. Any AZACTAM infusion should be completed within a 20- to 60-minute period. With use of a Y-type administration set, careful attention should be given to the calculated volume of aztreonam solution required so that the entire dose will be infused. A volume control administration set may be used to deliver an initial dilution of AZACTAM (see Preparation of Parenteral Solutions: Intravenous Solutions: For Infusion) into a compatible infusion solution during administration; in this case, the final dilution of aztreonam should provide a concentration not exceeding 2% w/v.

Intramuscular Administration
The dose should be given by deep injection into a large muscle mass (such as the upper outer quadrant of the gluteus maximus or lateral part of the thigh). Aztreonam is well tolerated and should not be admixed with any local anesthetic agent.

AZACTAM® (aztreonam for injection, USP)

Single-dose 15 mL capacity vials:
1 g/vial: Packages of 10 NDC 0003-2560-16
2 g/vial: Packages of 10 NDC 0003-2570-16

Store original packages at room temperature; avoid excessive heat.

AZACTAM® (aztreonam injection) in GALAXY plastic container (PL 2040) as a frozen, 50 mL single-dose intravenous solution as follows:
1 g aztreonam/50 mL container: Packages of 24 NDC 0003-2230-11
2 g aztreonam/50 mL container: Packages of 24 NDC 0003-2240-11

SOURCE: Package insert data:


National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, DailyMed Database.
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