|Caldolor - Ibuprofen
||Store at controlled room temperature 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F)
Mechanism of Action
Ibuprofen's mechanism of action, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but may be related to prostaglandin synthetase inhibition. Caldolor possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activity.
Ibuprofen is a racemic mixture of [-]R- and [+]S-isomers. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate that the [+]S-isomer is responsible for clinical activity. The [-]R-form, while thought to be pharmacologically inactive, is slowly and incompletely (~60%) interconverted into the active [+]S species in adults. The [-]R-isomer serves as a circulating reservoir to maintain levels of active drug.
Ibuprofen, like most NSAIDs, is highly protein bound (>99% bound at 20 mcg/mL). Protein binding is saturable, and at concentrations >20 mcg/mL binding is nonlinear. Based on oral dosing data, there is an age- or fever-related change in volume of distribution for ibuprofen.
|These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Caldolor safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for Caldolor.
CALDOLOR (ibuprofen) Injection, for intravenous use
Initial U.S. Approval: 1974
WARNING: RISK OF SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR AND GASTROINTESTINAL EVENTS
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may increase with duration of use. Patients with cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease may be at greater risk.
- Caldolor is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
- NSAIDs increase the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Caldolor is indicated in adults for the management of mild to moderate pain and the management of moderate to severe pain as an adjunct to opioid analgesics.
Caldolor is indicated for the reduction of fever in adults.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (ADULTS)
Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals [see Warnings and Precautions]. After observing the response to initial therapy with Caldolor, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient's needs. Do not exceed 3200 mg total daily dose.
To reduce the risk of renal adverse reactions, patients must be well hydrated prior to administration of Caldolor.
Administer 400 mg to 800 mg intravenously every 6 hours as necessary. Infusion time must be no less than 30 minutes.
Administer 400 mg intravenously, followed by 400 mg every 4 to 6 hours or 100-200 mg every 4 hours as necessary. Infusion time must be no less than 30 minutes.
Preparation and Administration
Caldolor must be diluted prior to intravenous infusion. Dilute to a final concentration of 4 mg/mL or less. Appropriate diluents include 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USP (normal saline), 5% Dextrose Injection USP (D5W), or Lactated Ringers Solution.
800 mg dose: Dilute 8 mL of Caldolor in no less than 200 mL of diluent.
400 mg dose: Dilute 4 mL of Caldolor in no less than 100 mL of diluent.
Visually inspect parenteral drug products for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. If visibly opaque particles, discoloration or other foreign particulates are observed, the solution should not be used.
Diluted solutions are stable for up to 24 hours at ambient temperature (approximately 20 to 25° C) and room lighting.
Infusion time must be no less than 30 minutes.
DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Caldolor is available as a 400 mg/4 mL single-dose vial (100 mg/mL) and 800 mg/8 mL single-dose vial (100 mg/mL).
Caldolor is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylactoid reactions and serious skin reactions) to ibuprofen
Asthma and Allergic Reactions
Caldolor is contraindicated in patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients.
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)
Caldolor is contraindicated for the treatment of perioperative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction and stroke, which can be fatal. All NSAIDs, both COX-2 selective and nonselective, may have a similar risk. Patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease may be at greater risk. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in patients treated with an NSAID, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10-14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke.
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID does increase the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Gastrointestinal Effects: Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation
NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, can cause serious GI adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3-6 months and in about 2-4% of patients treated for one year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk.
Prescribe NSAIDs, including Caldolor, with extreme caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or GI bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to treated patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk of GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most reports of spontaneous fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients, and therefore special care should be taken in treating this population.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event in patients treated with an NSAID, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulcerations and bleeding during NSAID therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI event is suspected. This should include discontinuation of the NSAID until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. For high-risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered.
Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs, including ibuprofen. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions have been reported, including jaundice, fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis and hepatic failure, some with fatal outcomes. A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or with abnormal liver test values, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with ibuprofen. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), ibuprofen should be discontinued.
NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, can lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of pre-existing hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Use NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, with caution in patients with hypertension. Monitor blood pressure closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.
Patients taking ACE inhibitors, thiazides, or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs.
Congestive Heart Failure and Edema
Fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients taking NSAIDs. Use Caldolor with caution in patients with fluid retention or heart failure.
Use caution when initiating treatment with Caldolor in patients with considerable dehydration.
Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID may cause a dose dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics or ACE inhibitors, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.
No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of Caldolor in patients with advanced renal disease. If Caldolor therapy must be initiated in patients with advanced renal disease, closely monitor the patient's renal function.
As with other NSAIDs, anaphylactoid reactions may occur in patients without known prior exposure to ibuprofen. Caldolor is contraindicated in patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs [see Contraindications (4.2)].
Serious Skin Reactions
NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, can cause serious skin adverse reactions such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Inform patients about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations, and to discontinue Caldolor at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.
Starting at 30 weeks gestation, Caldolor, and other NSAIDs, should be avoided by pregnant women as premature closure of the ductus arteriosus in the fetus may occur.
Masking Inflammation and Fever
The pharmacological activity of ibuprofen in reducing fever and inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.
Caldolor must be diluted prior to use. Infusion of the drug product without dilution can cause hemolysis.
Anemia may occur in patients receiving NSAIDs, including ibuprofen. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect on erythropoiesis. In patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, check hemoglobin or hematocrit if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia or blood loss.
NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effects on platelet function are less severe quantitatively, of shorter duration, and reversible. Carefully monitor patients who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants.
Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm, which can be fatal. Since cross-reactivity between aspirin and NSAIDs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, including bronchospasm, Caldolor is contraindicated in patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in all patients with pre-existing asthma.
Blurred or diminished vision, scotomata, and changes in color vision have been reported with oral ibuprofen. Discontinue ibuprofen if a patient develops such complaints, and refer the patient for an ophthalmologic examination that includes central visual fields and color vision testing.
Aseptic meningitis with fever and coma has been observed in patients on oral ibuprofen therapy. Although it is probably more likely to occur in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and related connective tissue diseases, it has been reported in patients who do not have underlying chronic disease. If signs or symptoms of meningitis develop in a patient on ibuprofen, give consideration to whether or not the signs or symptoms are related to ibuprofen therapy.
Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding.
Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs should have CBC and chemistry profiles checked periodically. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop, systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash), or abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, discontinue Caldolor.
HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
Caldolor is available in the following strengths:
400 mg/4 mL (100 mg/mL)
Carton of 25 vials, NDC 66220-247-04
800 mg/8 mL (100 mg/mL)
Carton of 25 vials, NDC 66220-287-08
Store at controlled room temperature 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP].
The stopper in the Caldolor vial does not contain natural rubber latex, dry natural rubber, or blends of natural rubber.