Pasteurella multocida

Background:

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Gram-Negative Cocci & Coccobacilli   
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>Aggregatibacter aphrophilus (formally known as Haemophilus aphrophilus)
>Bordetella pertussis (Causative agent of pertussis or whooping cough. )
>Brucella species:
     1] Brucella abortus
     2] Brucella canis
     3] Brucella melitensis
     4] Brucella suis
>Eikenella corrodens
>Haemophilus species:
     1] Haemophilus influenzae
     2] Haemophilus ducreyi
     3] Haemophilus avium
>Moraxella catarrhalis (formerly known as Branhamella catarrhalis)
>Neisseria species:  (frequently colonize mucosal surfaces.)
     1] Neisseria gonorrhoeae
     2] Neisseria meningitidis
>Pasteurella multocida led

Pasteurella multocida

  • Gram-negative, nonmotile, penicillin-sensitive coccobacillus belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.
  • Strains belonging to the species are currently classified into 5 serogroups (A, B, D, E, F) based on capsular composition and 16 somatic serovars.
  • Pasteurella multocida is the cause of a range of diseases in mammals and birds. It can also cause a zoonotic infection in humans, which typically is a result of bites or scratches from domestic pets. Many mammals and birds harbor it as part of their normal respiratory microbiota including domestic cats.
  • P. multocida expresses a range of virulence factors including a polysaccharide capsule and the variable carbohydrate surface molecule, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The capsule has been shown in strains belonging to serogroups A and B to help resist phagocytosis by host immune cells and capsule type A has also been shown to help resist complement-mediated lysis.

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Therapy:

Important considerations:  The choice of an agent should be based on local antimicrobial sensitivities, site of infection, cost, and comorbid conditions.   Generally, the most common agents/regimens are listed first.  Listed dosages may need to be adjusted for renal dysfunction.    Therapy is usually continued for 7 to 10 days.

  1. Amoxicillin 500 mg orally three times daily or 875mg bid.
  2. Penicillin VK 500mg orally every 6 hours
  3. Augmentin 875/125 mg orally twice daily or  500/125mg three times daily
  4. Levofloxacin 750 mg IV/PO once daily
  5. Cefpodoxime (Vantin) 200-400 mg orally twice daily
  6. Moxifloxacin 400 mg po once daily
  7. Bactrim DS orally twice daily
  8. Ceftriaxone 1-2 grams IV q24h  (range: 1-2 grams q12-24h)
  9. Ciprofloxacin 500-750 mg orally q12h or 200-400mg IV q12h
  10. Ampicillin-sulbactam (Unasyn) 1.5 – 3.0 grams IV q6h
  11. Piperacillin-tazobactam (Zosyn ®)  3.375 grams IV q6h
  12. Imipenem 500mg IV every 6 hours [Range: 250-1000 mg q6-8h]

Disclaimer

The authors make no claims of the accuracy of the information contained herein; and these suggested doses are not a substitute for clinical judgment. Neither GlobalRPh Inc. nor any other party involved in the preparation of this program shall be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting in whole or part from any user’s use of or reliance upon this material.PLEASE READ THE DISCLAIMER CAREFULLY BEFORE ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE. BY ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE, YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS SET FORTH IN THE DISCLAIMER. Read the disclaimer