Included as part of the PRECAUTIONS section.
Risk Of Infections
ZEPOSIA causes a mean reduction in peripheral blood lymphocyte count to 45% of baseline values because of reversible sequestration of lymphocytes in lymphoid tissues [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. ZEPOSIA may therefore increase the susceptibility to infections, some serious in nature. Life-threatening and rare fatal infections have occurred in patients receiving ZEPOSIA.
Obtain a recent (i.e., within 6 months or after discontinuation of prior MS therapy) complete blood count (CBC) including lymphocyte count before initiation of ZEPOSIA.
Delay initiation of ZEPOSIA in patients with an active infection until the infection is resolved.
In Study 1 and Study 2, the overall rate of infections and rate of serious infections in patients treated with ZEPOSIA was similar to that in patients who received interferon (IFN) beta-1a (35% vs 34% and 1% vs 0.8%, respectively). ZEPOSIA increased the risk of viral upper respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and herpes zoster [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
The proportion of patients who experienced lymphocyte counts less than 0.2 x 109/L was 3.3%. These values generally returned to greater than 0.2 x 109/L while patients remained on treatment with ZEPOSIA. After discontinuing ZEPOSIA 0.92 mg, the median time for peripheral blood lymphocytes to return to the normal range was 30 days, with approximately 90% of patients in the normal range within 3 months [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Consider interruption of treatment with ZEPOSIA if a patient develops a serious infection.
Because the elimination of ZEPOSIA after discontinuation may take up to 3 months, continue monitoring for infections throughout this period.
Herpes Viral Infection
In Study 1 and Study 2, herpes zoster was reported as an adverse reaction in 0.6% of patients treated with ZEPOSIA 0.92 mg and in 0.2% of patients who received IFN beta-1a. Herpes simplex encephalitis and varicella zoster meningitis have been reported with sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators. Patients without a healthcare professional-confirmed history of varicella (chickenpox), or without documentation of a full course of vaccination against varicella zoster virus (VZV), should be tested for antibodies to VZV before initiating ZEPOSIA (see Vaccinations below).
Cases of fatal cryptococcal meningitis (CM) and disseminated cryptococcal infections have been reported with S1P receptor modulators. Physicians should be vigilant for clinical symptoms or signs of CM. Patients with symptoms or signs consistent with a cryptococcal infection should undergo prompt diagnostic evaluation and treatment. ZEPOSIA treatment should be suspended until a cryptococcal infection has been excluded. If CM is diagnosed, appropriate treatment should be initiated.
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an opportunistic viral infection of the brain caused by the JC virus (JCV) that typically occurs in patients who are immunocompromised, and that usually leads to death or severe disability. Typical symptoms associated with PML are diverse, progress over days to weeks, and include progressive weakness on one side of the body or clumsiness of limbs, disturbance of vision, and changes in thinking, memory, and orientation leading to confusion and personality changes.
PML has been reported in patients treated with S1P receptor modulators and other multiple sclerosis (MS) therapies and has been associated with some risk factors (e.g., immunocompromised patients, polytherapy with immunosuppressants). Physicians should be vigilant for clinical symptoms or MRI findings that may be suggestive of PML. MRI findings may be apparent before clinical signs or symptoms. If PML is suspected, treatment with ZEPOSIA should be suspended until PML has been excluded by an appropriate diagnostic evaluation.
If PML is confirmed, treatment with ZEPOSIA should be discontinued.
Prior And Concomitant Treatment With Anti-neoplastic, Immunosuppressive, Or Immune-modulating Therapies
In clinical studies, patients who received ZEPOSIA were not to receive concomitant treatment with anti-neoplastic, non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive, or immune-modulating therapies used for the treatment of MS. Concomitant use of ZEPOSIA with any of these therapies would be expected to increase the risk of immunosuppression. Anti-neoplastic, immune-modulating, or immunosuppressive therapies (including corticosteroids) should be co-administered with caution because of the risk of additive immune system effects during such therapy. When switching to ZEPOSIA from immunosuppressive medications, consider the duration of their effects and their mode of action to avoid unintended additive immunosuppressive effects.
Patients without a healthcare professional-confirmed history of chickenpox or without documentation of a full course of vaccination against VZV should be tested for antibodies to VZV before initiating ZEPOSIA. A full course of vaccination for antibody-negative patients with varicella vaccine is recommended prior to commencing treatment with ZEPOSIA, following which initiation of treatment with ZEPOSIA should be postponed for 4 weeks to allow the full effect of vaccination to occur.
No clinical data are available on the efficacy and safety of vaccinations in patients taking ZEPOSIA. Vaccinations may be less effective if administered during ZEPOSIA treatment.
If live attenuated vaccine immunizations are required, administer at least 1 month prior to initiation of ZEPOSIA. Avoid the use of live attenuated vaccines during and for 3 months after treatment with ZEPOSIA.
Bradyarrhythmia And Atrioventricular Conduction Delays
Since initiation of ZEPOSIA may result in a transient decrease in heart rate and atrioventricular conduction delays, an up-titration scheme should be used to reach the maintenance dosage of ZEPOSIA [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
ZEPOSIA was not studied in patients who had:
- A myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stroke, TIA, or decompensated heart failure requiring hospitalization within the last 6 months
- New York Heart Association Class III / IV heart failure
- Cardiac conduction or rhythm disorders, including sick sinus syndrome, significant QT prolongation (QTcF > 450 msec in males, > 470 msec in females), risk factors for QT prolongation, or other conduction abnormalities or cardiac condition that in the opinion of the treating investigator could jeopardize the patientâ€™s health
- Other pre-existing stable cardiac conditions without clearance from a cardiologist
- Severe untreated sleep apnea
- A resting heart rate less than 55 beats per minute (bpm) at baseline
Reduction In Heart Rate
Initiation of ZEPOSIA may result in a transient decrease in heart rate. In Study 1 and Study 2, after the initial dose of ZEPOSIA 0.23 mg, the greatest mean decrease from baseline in heart rate of 1.2 bpm occurred at Hour 5 on Day 1, returning to near baseline at Hour 6. With continued up-titration, the maximal heart rate effect of ozanimod occurred on Day 8. The utility of performing first-dose cardiac monitoring when initiating ZEPOSIA in patients with characteristics similar to those studied in the clinical trials of ZEPOSIA is unclear. Heart rates below 40 bpm were not observed. Initiation of ZEPOSIA without titration may result in greater decreases in heart rate [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
In Study 1 and Study 2, bradycardia was reported on the day of treatment initiation in 0.6% of patients treated with ZEPOSIA compared to no patients who received IFN beta-1a. After Day 1, the incidence of bradycardia was 0.8% in patients treated with ZEPOSIA compared to 0.7% of patients who received IFN beta-1a.
Atrioventricular Conduction Delays
Initiation of ZEPOSIA may result in transient atrioventricular conduction delays. At ZEPOSIA exposures higher than the recommended dosage without dose titration, first-and second-degree type 1 atrioventricular blocks were observed in healthy volunteers; however, in Study 1 and Study 2 with dose titration, second-or third-degree atrioventricular blocks were not reported in patients treated with ZEPOSIA.
If treatment with ZEPOSIA is considered, advice from a cardiologist should be sought for those individuals:
- With significant QT prolongation (QTcF > 450 msec in males, > 470 msec in females)
- With arrhythmias requiring treatment with Class 1a or Class III anti-arrhythmic drugs
- With ischemic heart disease, heart failure, history of cardiac arrest or myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, and uncontrolled hypertension
- With a history of with second-degree Mobitz type II or higher AV block, sick-sinus syndrome, or sinoatrial heart block [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]
Elevations of aminotransferases may occur in patients receiving ZEPOSIA.
Obtain transaminase and bilirubin levels, if not recently available (i.e., within 6 months), before initiation of ZEPOSIA.
In Study 1 and Study 2, elevations of ALT to 5-fold the upper limit of normal (ULN) or greater occurred in 1.6% of patients treated with ZEPOSIA 0.92 mg and 1.3% of patients who received IFN beta-1a. Elevations of 3-fold the ULN or greater occurred in 5.5% of patients treated with ZEPOSIA and 3.1% of patients who received IFN beta-1a. The median time to an elevation of 3-fold the ULN was 6 months. The majority (79%) of patients continued treatment with ZEPOSIA with values returning to less than 3 times the ULN within approximately 2-4 weeks.
In clinical trials, ZEPOSIA was discontinued for a confirmed elevation greater than 5-fold the ULN. Overall, the discontinuation rate because of elevations in hepatic enzymes was 1.1% of patients treated with ZEPOSIA 0.92 mg and 0.8% of patients who received IFN beta-1a.
Patients who develop symptoms suggestive of hepatic dysfunction, such as unexplained nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, anorexia, or jaundice and/or dark urine, should have hepatic enzymes checked, and ZEPOSIA should be discontinued if significant liver injury is confirmed.
Individuals with an AST or ALT greater than 1.5 times ULN were excluded from Study 1 and Study 2. Although there are no data to establish that patients with preexisting liver disease are at increased risk to develop elevated liver function test values when taking ZEPOSIA, caution should be exercised when using ZEPOSIA in patients with a history of significant liver disease.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Based on animal studies, ZEPOSIA may cause fetal harm [see Use In Specific Populations]. Because it takes approximately 3 months to eliminate ZEPOSIA from the body, women of childbearing potential should use effective contraception to avoid pregnancy during treatment and for 3 months after stopping ZEPOSIA [see Use In Specific Populations].
Increased Blood Pressure
In Study 1 and Study 2, patients treated with ZEPOSIA had an average increase of approximately 1 to 2 mm Hg in systolic pressure over patients who received IFN beta-1a, and no effect on diastolic pressure. The increase in systolic pressure was first detected after approximately 3 months of treatment and persisted throughout treatment. Hypertension was reported as an adverse reaction in 3.9% of patients treated with ZEPOSIA 0.92 mg and in 2.1% of patients who received IFN beta-1a. Two patients treated with ZEPOSIA in Study 1 and one patient treated with interferon (IFN) beta-1a in Study 2 experienced a hypertensive crisis that was not clearly influenced by a concomitant medication. Blood pressure should be monitored during treatment with ZEPOSIA and managed appropriately.
Certain foods that may contain very high amounts (i.e., more than 150 mg) of tyramine could cause severe hypertension because of potential tyramine interaction in patients taking ZEPOSIA, even at the recommended doses. Because of an increased sensitivity to tyramine, patients should be advised to avoid foods containing a very large amount of tyramine while taking ZEPOSIA.
Dose-dependent reductions in absolute forced expiratory volume over 1 second (FEV1) were observed in patients treated with ZEPOSIA as early as 3 months after treatment initiation. In pooled analyses of Study 1 and Study 2, the decline in absolute FEV1 from baseline in patients treated with ZEPOSIA compared to patients who received IFN beta-1a was 60 mL (95% CI: -100, -20) at 12 months. The mean difference in percent predicted FEV1 at 12 months between patients treated with ZEPOSIA and patients who received IFN beta-1a was 1.9% (95% CI: -2.9, -0.8). Dose-dependent reductions in forced vital capacity (FVC) (absolute value and %predicted) were also seen at Month 3 in pooled analyses comparing patients treated with ZEPOSIA to patients who received IFN beta1a (60 mL, 95% CI (-110, -10); 1.4%, 95% CI: (-2.6, -0.2)), though significant reductions were not seen at other timepoints. There is insufficient information to determine the reversibility of the decrease in FEV1 or FVC after drug discontinuation. One patient discontinued ZEPOSIA because of dyspnea. Spirometric evaluation of respiratory function should be performed during therapy with ZEPOSIA, if clinically indicated.
S1P modulators, including ZEPOSIA, have been associated with an increased risk of macular edema.
In Study 1 and Study 2, macular edema was observed in 0.3% of patients treated with ZEPOSIA and in 0.3% of patients who received IFN beta-1a.
An ophthalmic evaluation of the fundus, including the macula, is recommended in all patients at any time if there is any change in vision while taking ZEPOSIA.
Continuation of ZEPOSIA therapy in patients with macular edema has not been evaluated. A decision on whether or not ZEPOSIA should be discontinued needs to take into account the potential benefits and risks for the individual patient.
Macular Edema In Patients With A History Of Uveitis Or Diabetes Mellitus
Patients with a history of uveitis and patients with a history of diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of macular edema during ZEPOSIA therapy. The incidence of macular edema is also increased in MS patients with a history of uveitis. In addition to the examination of the fundus, including the macula, prior to treatment, MS patients with diabetes mellitus or a history of uveitis should have regular follow-up examinations.
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome
Rare cases of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) have been reported in patients receiving a S1P receptor modulator. In controlled clinical trials with ZEPOSIA, one case of PRES was reported. Should a ZEPOSIA-treated patient develop any unexpected neurological or psychiatric symptoms/signs (e.g., cognitive deficits, behavioral changes, cortical visual disturbances, or any other neurological cortical symptoms/signs), any symptom/sign suggestive of an increase of intracranial pressure, or accelerated neurological deterioration, the physician should promptly schedule a complete physical and neurological examination and should consider an MRI. Symptoms of PRES are usually reversible but may evolve into ischemic stroke or cerebral hemorrhage. Delay in diagnosis and treatment may lead to permanent neurological sequelae. If PRES is suspected, treatment with ZEPOSIA should be discontinued.
Unintended Additive Immunosuppressive Effects From Prior Treatment With Immunosuppressive Or Immune-Modulating Drugs
When switching from drugs with prolonged immune effects, the half-life and mode of action of these drugs must be considered to avoid unintended additive immunosuppressive effects while at the same time minimizing risk of disease reactivation, when initiating ZEPOSIA.
Initiating treatment with ZEPOSIA after treatment with alemtuzumab is not recommended [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Severe Increase In Disability After Stopping ZEPOSIA
Severe exacerbation of disease, including disease rebound, has been rarely reported after discontinuation of a S1P receptor modulator. The possibility of severe exacerbation of disease should be considered after stopping ZEPOSIA treatment. Patients should be observed for a severe increase in disability upon ZEPOSIA discontinuation and appropriate treatment should be instituted, as required.
Immune System Effects After Stopping ZEPOSIA
After discontinuing ZEPOSIA, the median time for peripheral blood lymphocytes to return to the normal range was 30 days, with approximately 90% of patients in the normal range within 3 months [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Use of immunosuppressants within this period may lead to an additive effect on the immune system, and therefore caution should be applied when initiating other drugs 4 weeks after the last dose of ZEPOSIA [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
Risk Of Infections
Inform patients that they may be more likely to get infections, some of which could be life-threatening, when taking ZEPOSIA and for 3 months after stopping it, and that they should contact their healthcare provider if they develop symptoms of infection [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Inform patients that prior or concomitant use of drugs that suppress the immune system may increase the risk of infection. Advise patients that some vaccines containing live virus (live attenuated vaccines) should be avoided during treatment with ZEPOSIA. If immunizations are planned, administer at least 1 month prior to initiation of ZEPOSIA. Avoid the use of live attenuated vaccines during and for 3 months after treatment with ZEPOSIA. Patients without a healthcare professional-confirmed history of chickenpox or without documentation of a full course of vaccination against VZV should be tested for antibodies to VZV before initiating ZEPOSIA.
Advise patients that initiation of ZEPOSIA treatment may result in a transient decrease in heart rate. Inform patients that to reduce this effect, dose titration is required. Advise patients that the dose titration is also required if a dose is missed for 1 day or more during the first 14 days of treatment [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that ZEPOSIA may increase liver enzymes. Advise patients that they should contact their healthcare provider if they have any unexplained nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, anorexia, or jaundice and/or dark urine [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Pregnancy And Fetal Risk
Inform patients that, based on animal studies, ZEPOSIA may cause fetal harm. Discuss with women of childbearing age whether they are pregnant, might be pregnant, or are trying to become pregnant. Advise women of childbearing potential of the need for effective contraception during treatment with ZEPOSIA and for 3 months after stopping ZEPOSIA. Advise a female patient to immediately inform her healthcare provider if she is pregnant or planning to become pregnant [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise patients that they should contact their healthcare provider if they experience new onset or worsening dyspnea [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Advise patients that ZEPOSIA may cause macular edema, and that they should contact their healthcare provider if they experience any changes in their vision. Inform patient with diabetes mellitus or a history of uveitis that their risk of macular edema maybe increased [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome
Advise patients to immediately report to their healthcare provide any symptoms involving sudden onset of severe headache, altered mental status, visual disturbances, or seizure. Inform patients that delayed treatment could lead to permanent neurological consequences [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Severe Increase In Disability After Stopping ZEPOSIA
Inform patients that severe increase in disability has been reported after discontinuation of a S1P receptor modulator like ZEPOSIA. Advise patients to contact their physician if they develop worsening symptoms of MS following discontinuation of ZEPOSIA [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Immune System Effects After Stopping ZEPOSIA
Advise patients that ZEPOSIA continues to have effects, such as lowering effects on peripheral lymphocyte count, for up to 3 months after the last dose [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Oral administration of ozanimod (0, 8, 25, or 80 mg/kg/day) to Tg.rasH2 mice for 26-weeks resulted in an increase in hemangioma and hemangiosarcoma (combined) in males and females at the mid and high doses tested.
Oral administration of ozanimod (0, 0.2, 0.7, or 2 mg/kg/day) to rats for 2 years resulted in no increase in tumors. At the highest dose tested (2 mg/kg/day), plasma exposure (AUC) for ozanimod was approximately 100 times that in humans at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 0.92 mg/day. Plasma AUCs for major human metabolites, CC112273 and CC1084037, were similar to and less than, respectively, those in humans at the MRHD.
Ozanimod was negative in a battery of in vitro (Ames, mouse lymphoma tk) and in vivo (rat micronucleus) assays. Metabolite CC1122273 was negative in in vitro (Ames, chromosomal aberration in mammalian cell) assays. Metabolite CC1084037 was negative in an Ames assay, and positive in an in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in human (TK6) cells but negative in an in vivo rat micronucleus/comet assay.
Impairment Of Fertility
Oral administration of ozanimod (0, 0.2, 2, or 30 mg/kg/day) to male and female rats prior to and during mating and continuing through gestation day 7 resulted in no adverse effects on fertility. At the highest dose tested (30 mg/kg/day), plasma ozanimod exposure (AUC) was approximately 1600 times that in humans at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) (0.92 mg/day); plasma AUCs for metabolites, CC112273 and CC1084037, at 30 mg/kg/day were 13 and 3 times, respectively, those in humans at the MRHD.
Use In Specific Populations
There are no adequate data on the developmental risk associated with the use of ZEPOSIA in pregnant women. In animal studies, administration of ozanimod during pregnancy produced adverse effects on development, including embryolethality, an increase in fetal malformations, and neurobehavioral changes, in the absence of maternal toxicity. In rabbits, fetal blood vessel malformations occurred at clinically relevant maternal ozanimod and metabolite exposures (see Data). The receptor affected by ozanimod (sphingosine-1-phosphate) has been demonstrated to have an important role in embryogenesis, including vascular and neural development.
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.
Oral administration of ozanimod (0, 0.2, 1, or 5 mg/kg/day) to female rats during organogenesis resulted in a marked increase in embryofetal mortality, increased fetal malformations and skeletal variations (abnormal/delayed ossification), and reduced fetal body weight at the highest dose tested. No maternal toxicity was observed. At the no-effect dose (1 mg/kg/day) for adverse effects on embryofetal development, plasma ozanimod exposure (AUC) for ozanimod was approximately 60 times that in humans at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 0.92 mg/day. Plasma AUCs for major human metabolites, CC112273 and CC1084037, were similar to and less than, respectively, those in humans at the MRHD.
Oral administration of ozanimod (0, 0.2, 0.6, or 2.0 mg/kg/day) to female rabbits during organogenesis resulted in a marked increase in embryofetal mortality at the highest dose tested and increased fetal malformations (malformed blood vessels) and skeletal variations at the mid and high doses. Maternal toxicity was not observed. At the no-effect dose (0.2 mg/kg/day) for adverse effects on embryofetal development in rabbit, plasma ozanimod exposure (AUC) was approximately 2 times that in humans at the MRHD; plasma AUCs for major human metabolites, CC112273 and CC1084037, were less than those in humans at the MRHD.
Oral administration of ozanimod (0, 0.2, 0.7, or 2 mg/kg/day) to female rats throughout gestation and lactation resulted in persistent body weight reductions and long-term effects on reproductive (prolonged estrus cycle) and neurobehavioral (increased motor activity) function in offspring at the highest dose tested, which was not associated with maternal toxicity. At the no-effect dose (0.7 mg/kg/day) for adverse effects on pre-and postnatal development, plasma ozanimod exposure (AUC) was 30 times that in humans at the MRHD; plasma AUCs for major human metabolites, CC112273 and CC1084037, were less than those in humans at the MRHD.
There are no data on the presence of ozanimod in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects of the drug on milk production. Following oral administration of ozanimod, ozanimod and/or metabolites were detected in the milk of lactating rat at levels higher than those in maternal plasma.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the motherâ€™s clinical need for ZEPOSIA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from ZEPOSIA or from the underlying maternal condition.
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
Before initiation of ZEPOSIA treatment, women of childbearing potential should be counseled on the potential for a serious risk to the fetus and the need for contraception during treatment with ZEPOSIA [see Use In Specific Populations]. Because of the time it takes to eliminate the drug from the body after stopping treatment, the potential risk to the fetus may persist and women of childbearing age should also use effective contraception for 3 months after stopping ZEPOSIA.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Clinical studies of ZEPOSIA did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of the ozanimod major active metabolites is unknown [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Use of ZEPOSIA in patients with hepatic impairment is not recommended.