Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an opportunistic viral infection of the brain caused by the JC virus (JCV) that typically only occurs in patients who are immunocompromised, and that usually leads to death or severe disability, has occurred in patients who have received TYSABRI.
Three factors that are known to increase the risk of PML in TYSABRI-treated patients have been identified:
- Longer treatment duration, especially beyond 2 years. There is limited experience in patients who have received more than 6 years of TYSABRI treatment.
- Prior treatment with an immunosuppressant (e.g., mitoxantrone, azathioprine, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil).
- The presence of anti-JCV antibodies. Patients who are anti-JCV antibody positive have a higher risk for developing PML.
These factors should be considered in the context of expected benefit when initiating and continuing treatment with TYSABRI.
Table 1: Estimated United States Incidence of PML Stratified by Risk Factor
|Anti-JCV Antibody Negative
||Anti-JCV Antibody Positive
|No Prior Immunosuppressant Use
||Prior Immunosuppressant Use
|Notes: The risk estimates are based on postmarketing data in the United States from approximately 69,000 TYSABRI exposed patients.
†Data beyond 6 years of treatment are limited.
The anti-JCV antibody status was determined using an anti-JCV antibody test (ELISA) that has been analytically and clinically
validated and is configured with detection and inhibition steps to confirm the presence of JCV-specific antibodies with an
analytical false negative rate of 3%.
Retrospective analyses of postmarketing data from various sources, including observational studies and spontaneous reports obtained worldwide, suggest that the risk of developing PML may be associated with relative levels of serum anti-JCV antibody compared to a calibrator as measured by ELISA (often described as an anti-JCV antibody index value).
Ordinarily, patients receiving chronic immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory therapy or who have systemic medical conditions resulting in significantly compromised immune system function should not be treated with TYSABRI. Infection by the JC virus is required for the development of PML. Anti-JCV antibody testing should not be used to diagnose PML. Anti-JCV antibody negative status indicates that antibodies to the JC virus have not been detected. Patients who are anti-JCV antibody negative have a lower risk of PML than those who are positive. Patients who are anti-JCV antibody negative are still at risk for the development of PML due to the potential for a new JCV infection or a false negative test result. The reported rate of seroconversion in patients with MS (changing from anti-JCV antibody negative to positive and remaining positive in subsequent testing) is 3 to 8 percent annually. In addition, some patients’ serostatus may change intermittently. Therefore, patients with a negative anti-JCV antibody test result should be retested periodically. For purposes of risk assessment, a patient with a positive anti-JCV antibody test at any time is considered anti-JCV antibody positive regardless of the results of any prior or subsequent anti-JCV antibody testing. When assessed, anti-JCV antibody status should be determined using an analytically and clinically validated immunoassay. After plasma exchange, wait at least two weeks to test for anti-JCV antibodies to avoid false negative test results caused by the removal of serum antibodies. After infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), wait at least 6 months (5 half-lives) for the IVIg to clear in order to avoid false positive anti-JCV antibody test results.
Healthcare professionals should monitor patients on TYSABRI for any new sign or symptom suggestive of PML. Symptoms associated with PML are diverse, progress over days to weeks, and include progressive weakness on one side of the body or clumsiness of limbs, disturbance of vision, and changes in thinking, memory, and orientation leading to confusion and personality changes. The progression of deficits usually leads to death or severe disability over weeks or months. Withhold TYSABRI dosing immediately and perform an appropriate diagnostic evaluation at the first sign or symptom suggestive of PML.
MRI findings may be apparent before clinical signs or symptoms. Cases of PML, diagnosed based on MRI findings and the detection of JCV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid in the absence of clinical signs or symptoms specific to PML, have been reported. Many of these patients subsequently became symptomatic with PML. Therefore, monitoring with MRI for signs that may be consistent with PML may be useful, and any suspicious findings should lead to further investigation to allow for an early diagnosis of PML, if present. Consider monitoring patients at high risk for PML more frequently. Lower PML-related mortality and morbidity have been reported following TYSABRI discontinuation in patients with PML who were initially asymptomatic compared to patients with PML who had characteristic clinical signs and symptoms at diagnosis. It is not known whether these differences are due to early detection and discontinuation of TYSABRI or due to differences in disease in these patients.
There are no known interventions that can reliably prevent PML or that can adequately treat PML if it occurs. PML has been reported following discontinuation of TYSABRI in patients who did not have findings suggestive of PML at the time of discontinuation. Patients should continue to be monitored for any new signs or symptoms that may be suggestive of PML for at least six months following discontinuation of TYSABRI.
Because of the risk of PML, TYSABRI is available only under a restricted distribution program, the TOUCH® Prescribing Program.
In multiple sclerosis patients, an MRI scan should be obtained prior to initiating therapy with TYSABRI. This MRI may be helpful in differentiating subsequent multiple sclerosis symptoms from PML.
In Crohn’s disease patients, a baseline brain MRI may also be helpful to distinguish pre-existent lesions from newly developed lesions, but brain lesions at baseline that could cause diagnostic difficulty while on TYSABRI therapy are uncommon.
For diagnosis of PML, an evaluation including a gadolinium-enhanced MRI scan of the brain and, when indicated, cerebrospinal fluid analysis for JC viral DNA are recommended. If the initial evaluations for PML are negative but clinical suspicion for PML remains, continue to withhold TYSABRI dosing, and repeat the evaluations.
There are no known interventions that can adequately treat PML if it occurs. Three sessions of plasma exchange over 5 to 8 days were shown to accelerate TYSABRI clearance in a study of 12 patients with MS who did not have PML, although in the majority of patients, alpha-4 integrin receptor binding remained high. Adverse events which may occur during plasma exchange include clearance of other medications and volume shifts, which have the potential to lead to hypotension or pulmonary edema. Although plasma exchange has not been studied in TYSABRI treated patients with PML, it has been used in such patients in the postmarketing setting to remove TYSABRI more quickly from the circulation.
JC virus infection of granule cell neurons in the cerebellum (i.e., JC virus granule cell neuronopathy [JCV GCN]) has been reported in patients treated with TYSABRI. JCV GCN can occur with or without concomitant PML. JCV GCN can cause cerebellar dysfunction (e.g., ataxia, incoordination, apraxia, visual disorders), and neuroimaging can show cerebellar atrophy. For diagnosis of JCV GCN, an evaluation that includes a gadolinium-enhanced MRI scan of the brain and, when indicated, cerebrospinal fluid analysis for JC viral DNA, is recommended. JCV GCN should be managed similarly to PML.
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) has been reported in the majority of TYSABRI treated patients who developed PML and subsequently discontinued TYSABRI. In almost all cases, IRIS occurred after plasma exchange was used to eliminate circulating TYSABRI. It presents as a clinical decline in the patient’s condition after TYSABRI removal (and in some cases after apparent clinical improvement) that may be rapid, can lead to serious neurological complications or death, and is often associated with characteristic changes in the MRI. TYSABRI has not been associated with IRIS in patients discontinuing treatment with TYSABRI for reasons unrelated to PML. In TYSABRI treated patients with PML, IRIS has been reported within days to several weeks after plasma exchange. Monitoring for development of IRIS and appropriate treatment of the associated inflammation should be undertaken.
Tysabri Touch® Prescribing Program
TYSABRI is available only through a restricted program under a REMS called the TOUCH® Prescribing Program because of the risk of PML [see Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy].
For prescribers and patients, the TOUCH® Prescribing Program has two components: MS TOUCH® (for patients with multiple sclerosis) and CD TOUCH® (for patients with Crohn's disease).
Selected requirements of the TOUCH® Prescribing Program include the following:
- Prescribers must be certified and comply with the following:
- Review the TOUCH® Prescribing Program prescriber educational materials, including the full prescribing information.
- Educate patients on the benefits and risks of treatment with TYSABRI, ensure that patients receive the Medication Guide, and encourage them to ask questions.
- Review, complete, and sign the Patient-Prescriber Enrollment Form.
- Evaluate patients three months after the first infusion, six months after the first infusion, every six months thereafter, and for at least six months after discontinuing TYSABRI.
- Determine every six months whether patients should continue on treatment and, if so, authorize treatment for another six months.
- Submit to Biogen the “TYSABRI Patient Status Report and Reauthorization Questionnaire” six months after initiating treatment and every six months thereafter.
- Complete an “Initial Discontinuation Questionnaire” when TYSABRI is discontinued, and a “6-Month Discontinuation Questionnaire” following discontinuation of TYSABRI.
- Report cases of PML, hospitalizations due to opportunistic infections, and deaths to Biogen at 1-800-456-2255 as soon as possible.
- Patients must be enrolled in the TOUCH® Prescribing Program, read the Medication Guide, understand the risks associated with TYSABRI, and complete and sign the Patient-Prescriber Enrollment Form.
- Pharmacies and infusion centers must be specially certified to dispense or infuse TYSABRI.
Herpes Encephalitis And Meningitis
TYSABRI increases the risk of developing encephalitis and meningitis caused by herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses. Serious, life-threatening, and sometimes fatal cases have been reported in the postmarketing setting in multiple sclerosis patients receiving TYSABRI. Laboratory confirmation in those cases was based on positive PCR for viral DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. The duration of treatment with TYSABRI prior to onset ranged from a few months to several years. Monitor patients receiving TYSABRI for signs and symptoms of meningitis and encephalitis. If herpes encephalitis or meningitis occurs, TYSABRI should be discontinued, and appropriate treatment for herpes encephalitis/meningitis should be administered.
Acute Retinal Necrosis
Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a fulminant viral infection of the retina caused by the family of herpes viruses (e.g., varicella zoster, herpes simplex virus). A higher risk of ARN has been observed in patients being administered TYSABRI. Patients presenting with eye symptoms, including decreased visual acuity, redness, or eye pain, should be referred for retinal screening for ARN. Some ARN cases occurred in patients with central nervous system (CNS) herpes infections (e.g., herpes meningitis or encephalitis). Serious cases of ARN led to blindness of one or both eyes in some patients. Following clinical diagnosis of ARN, consider discontinuation of TYSABRI. The treatment reported in ARN cases included anti-viral therapy and, in some cases, surgery.
Clinically significant liver injury, including acute liver failure requiring transplant, has been reported in patients treated with TYSABRI in the postmarketing setting. Signs of liver injury, including markedly elevated serum hepatic enzymes and elevated total bilirubin, occurred as early as six days after the first dose; signs of liver injury have also been reported for the first time after multiple doses. In some patients, liver injury recurred upon rechallenge, providing evidence that TYSABRI caused the injury. The combination of transaminase elevations and elevated bilirubin without evidence of obstruction is generally recognized as an important predictor of severe liver injury that may lead to death or the need for a liver transplant in some patients.
TYSABRI should be discontinued in patients with jaundice or other evidence of significant liver injury (e.g., laboratory evidence).
Hypersensitivity reactions have occurred in patients receiving TYSABRI, including serious systemic reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis), which occurred at an incidence of <1%. These reactions usually occur within two hours of the start of the infusion. Symptoms associated with these reactions can include urticaria, dizziness, fever, rash, rigors, pruritus, nausea, flushing, hypotension, dyspnea, and chest pain. Generally, these reactions are associated with antibodies to TYSABRI.
If a hypersensitivity reaction occurs, discontinue administration of TYSABRI, and initiate appropriate therapy. Patients who experience a hypersensitivity reaction should not be re-treated with TYSABRI. Hypersensitivity reactions were more frequent in patients with antibodies to TYSABRI compared to patients who did not develop antibodies to TYSABRI in both MS and CD studies. Therefore, the possibility of antibodies to TYSABRI should be considered in patients who have hypersensitivity reactions [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
If the presence of persistent antibodies is suspected, antibody testing should be performed. Antibodies may be detected and confirmed with sequential serum antibody tests. Antibodies detected early in the treatment course (e.g., within the first six months) may be transient and may disappear with continued dosing. It is recommended that testing be repeated three months after an initial positive result to confirm that antibodies are persistent. Prescribers should consider the overall benefits and risks of TYSABRI in a patient with persistent antibodies.
Patients who receive TYSABRI for a short exposure (1 to 2 infusions) followed by an extended period without treatment are at higher risk of developing anti-natalizumab antibodies and/or hypersensitivity reactions on re-exposure, compared to patients who received regularly scheduled treatment. Given that patients with persistent antibodies to TYSABRI experience reduced efficacy, and that hypersensitivity reactions are more common in such patients, consideration should be given to testing for the presence of antibodies in patients who wish to recommence therapy following a dose interruption. Following a period of dose interruption, patients testing negative for antibodies prior to re-dosing have a risk of antibody development with re-treatment that is similar to TYSABRI naïve patients [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
The immune system effects of TYSABRI may increase the risk for infections. In Study MS1 [see Clinical Studies], certain types of infections, including pneumonias and urinary tract infections (including serious cases), gastroenteritis, vaginal infections, tooth infections, tonsillitis, and herpes infections, occurred more often in TYSABRI-treated patients than in placebo-treated patients [see Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy , ADVERSE REACTIONS]. One opportunistic infection, a cryptosporidial gastroenteritis with a prolonged course, was observed in a patient who received TYSABRI in Study MS1.
In Studies MS1 and MS2, an increase in infections was seen in patients concurrently receiving short courses of corticosteroids. However, the increase in infections in TYSABRI-treated patients who received steroids was similar to the increase in placebo-treated patients who received steroids.
In a long-term safety study of patients treated with TYSABRI for multiple sclerosis, opportunistic infections (pulmonary mycobacterium avium intracellulare, aspergilloma, cryptococcal fungemia and meningitis, and Candida pneumonia) have been observed in <1% of TYSABRI-treated patients.
In CD clinical studies, opportunistic infections (pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, pulmonary mycobacterium avium intracellulare, bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and burkholderia cepacia) have been observed in <1% of TYSABRI-treated patients; some of these patients were receiving concurrent immunosuppressants [see Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy , ADVERSE REACTIONS].
In Studies CD1 and CD2, an increase in infections was seen in patients concurrently receiving corticosteroids. However, the increase in infections was similar in placebo-treated and TYSABRI-treated patients who received steroids.Concurrent use of antineoplastic, immunosuppressant, or immunomodulating agents may further increase the risk of infections, including PML and other opportunistic infections, over the risk observed with use of TYSABRI alone [see Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy , ADVERSE REACTIONS]. The safety and efficacy of TYSABRI in combination with antineoplastic, immunosuppressant, or immunomodulating agents have not been established. Patients receiving chronic immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory therapy or who have systemic medical conditions resulting in significantly compromised immune system function should not ordinarily be treated with TYSABRI. The risk of PML is also increased in patients who have been treated with an immunosuppressant prior to receiving TYSABRI [see Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy].
For patients with Crohn’s disease who start TYSABRI while on chronic corticosteroids, commence steroid withdrawal as soon as a therapeutic benefit has occurred. If the patient cannot discontinue systemic corticosteroids within six months, discontinue TYSABRI.
Laboratory Test Abnormalities
In clinical trials, TYSABRI was observed to induce increases in circulating lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and nucleated red blood cells. Observed changes persisted during TYSABRI exposure, but were reversible, returning to baseline levels usually within 16 weeks after the last dose. Elevations of neutrophils were not observed. TYSABRI induces mild decreases in hemoglobin levels (mean decrease of 0.6 g/dL) that are frequently transient.
No data are available on the effects of vaccination in patients receiving TYSABRI. No data are available on the secondary transmission of infection by live vaccines in patients receiving TYSABRI.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
General Counseling Information
Counsel patients to understand the risks and benefits of TYSABRI before an initial prescription is written. The patient may be educated by either the enrolled prescriber or a healthcare provider under that prescriber’s direction. INSTRUCT PATIENTS USING TYSABRI TO:
- Read the Medication Guide before starting TYSABRI and before each TYSABRI infusion.
- Promptly report any new or continuously worsening symptoms that persist over several days to their prescriber [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
- Inform all of their physicians that they are receiving TYSABRI.
- Plan to see their prescriber three months after the first infusion, six months after the first infusion, every six months thereafter, and for at least six months after discontinuing TYSABRI.
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
Inform patients that Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) has occurred in patients who received TYSABRI. Instruct the patient of the importance of contacting their doctor if they develop any symptoms suggestive of PML. Instruct the patient that typical symptoms associated with PML are diverse, progress over days to weeks, and include progressive weakness on one side of the body or clumsiness of limbs, disturbance of vision, and changes in thinking, memory, and orientation leading to confusion and personality changes. Instruct the patient that the progression of deficits usually leads to death or severe disability over weeks or months.
Instruct patients to continue to look for new signs and symptoms suggestive of PML for approximately 6 months following discontinuation of TYSABRI [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Tysabri Touch® Prescribing Program
Advise the patient that TYSABRI is only available through a restricted program called the TOUCH® Prescribing Program. Inform the patient of the following requirements:
Patients must read the Medication Guide and sign the Patient Prescriber Enrollment Form. Advise patients that TYSABRI is available only from certified pharmacies and infusion centers participating in the program [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that TYSABRI increases the risk of developing encephalitis, and meningitis, which could be fatal, and acute retinal necrosis, which could lead to blindness, caused by the family of herpes viruses (e.g., herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses). Instruct patients to immediately report any possible symptoms of encephalitis and meningitis (such as fever, headache, and confusion) or acute retinal necrosis (such as decreased visual acuity, eye redness, or eye pain) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that TYSABRI may cause liver injury. Instruct patients treated with TYSABRI to report promptly any symptoms that may indicate liver injury, including fatigue, anorexia, right upper abdominal discomfort, dark urine, or jaundice [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Instruct patients to report immediately if they experience symptoms consistent with a hypersensitivity reaction (e.g., urticaria with or without associated symptoms) during or following an infusion of TYSABRI [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients that TYSABRI may lower the ability of their immune system to fight infections.
Instruct the patient of the importance of contacting their doctor if they develop any symptoms of infection [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
No clastogenic or mutagenic effects of natalizumab were observed in the Ames test or in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in human lymphocytes. Natalizumab showed no effects in in vitro assays of α4-integrin positive human tumor line proliferation/cytotoxicity. Xenograft transplantation models in SCID and nude mice with two α4-integrin positive human tumor lines (leukemia, melanoma) demonstrated no increase in tumor growth rates or metastasis resulting from natalizumab treatment.
In male guinea pigs administered natalizumab (0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg) by intravenous (IV) infusion on alternate days from 28 days prior to and continuing throughout mating (to untreated females), no effects on fertility were observed. The highest dose tested is 6 times the recommended human dose (RHD) (300 mg) on a body weight (mg/kg) basis.
In a separate study in female guinea pigs (mated with untreated males), natalizumab (0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg), administered by IV infusion on alternate days from gestation day (GD) 30 of the first pregnancy through GD 30 of the second pregnancy, resulted in a decrease in pregnancy rate and number of implantations at 30 mg/kg. (Fertility parameters were assessed for the second pregnancy.) The no-effect dose for effects on female fertility (10 mg/kg) is 2 times the RHD on a body weight basis.
Use In Specific Populations
There are no adequate data on the developmental risk associated with the use of TYSABRI in pregnant women. In animal studies, administration of natalizumab during pregnancy produced fetal immunologic and hematologic effects in monkeys at doses similar to the human dose and reduced offspring survival in guinea pigs at doses greater than the human dose. These doses were not maternally toxic but produced the expected pharmacological effects in maternal animals [see Data].
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.
In developmental toxicity studies conducted in guinea pigs and monkeys, at natalizumab doses up to 30 mg/kg (7 times the recommended human dose based on body weight [mg/kg]), transplacental transfer and in utero exposure of the embryo/fetus was demonstrated in both species.
In a study in which pregnant guinea pigs were administered natalizumab (0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg) by intravenous (IV) infusion on alternate days throughout organogenesis (gestation days [GD] 430), no effects on embryofetal development were observed.
When pregnant monkeys were administered natalizumab (0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg) by IV infusion on alternative days throughout organogenesis (GDs 20-70), serum levels in fetuses at delivery were approximately 35% of maternal serum natalizumab levels. There were no effects on embryofetal development; however, natalizumab-related immunological and hematologic changes were observed in the fetuses at the two highest doses. These changes included decreases in lymphocytes (CD3+ and CD20+), changes in lymphocyte subpopulation percentages, mild anemia, reduced platelet count, increased spleen weights, and reduced liver and thymus weights associated with increased splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis, thymic atrophy, and decreased hepatic hematopoiesis.
In a study in which monkeys were exposed to natalizumab during pregnancy (IV infusion of 30 mg/kg) on alternate days from GD20 to GD70 or GD20 to term, abortions were increased approximately 2-fold compared to controls. In offspring born to mothers administered natalizumab on alternate days from GD20 until delivery, hematologic effects (decreased lymphocyte and platelet counts) were also observed. These effects were reversed upon clearance of natalizumab. There was no evidence of anemia in these offspring. Offspring exposed in utero and during lactation had a normal immune response to challenge with a T-cell dependent antigen.
In a study in which pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to natalizumab (30 mg/kg IV) on alternate dates during GDs 30-64, a reduction in pup survival was observed.
Natalizumab has been detected in human milk. There are no data on the effects of this exposure on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for TYSABRI and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from TYSABRI or from the underlying maternal condition.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis or Crohn’s disease below the age of 18 years have not been established. TYSABRI is not indicated for use in pediatric patients.
Clinical studies of TYSABRI did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 years and over to determine whether they respond differently than younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.