Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section
Anaphylaxis And Serious Hypersensitivity Reactions
In clinical trials of lixisenatide, a component of SOLIQUA 100/33, there have been cases of anaphylaxis (frequency of 0.1% or 10 cases per 10,000 patient-years) and other serious hypersensitivity reactions including angioedema. Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, generalized skin reactions, angioedema, bronchospasm, hypotension, and shock can occur with insulins, including insulin glargine, a component of SOLIQUA 100/33 [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Inform and closely monitor patients with a history of anaphylaxis or angioedema with another GLP-1 receptor agonist for allergic reactions, because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to anaphylaxis with lixisenatide. SOLIQUA 100/33 is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to lixisenatide or insulin glargine [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. If a hypersensitivity reaction occurs, the patient should discontinue SOLIQUA 100/33 and promptly seek medical attention.
Acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis, has been reported postmarketing in patients treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists. In clinical trials of lixisenatide, a component of SOLIQUA 100/33, there were 21 cases of pancreatitis among lixisenatide-treated patients and 14 cases in comparator-treated patients (incidence rate of 21 vs
17 per 10,000 patient-years). Lixisenatide cases were reported as acute pancreatitis (n=3), pancreatitis (n=12), chronic pancreatitis (n=5), and edematous pancreatitis (n=1). Some patients had risk factors for pancreatitis, such as a history of cholelithiasis or alcohol abuse.
After initiation of SOLIQUA 100/33, observe patients carefully for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis (including persistent severe abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back and which may or may not be accompanied by vomiting). If pancreatitis is suspected, promptly discontinue SOLIQUA 100/33 and initiate appropriate management. If pancreatitis is confirmed, restarting SOLIQUA 100/33 is not recommended. Consider antidiabetic therapies other than SOLIQUA 100/33 in patients with a history of pancreatitis.
Never Share A SOLIQUA 100/33 Prefilled Pen Between Patients
SOLIQUA 100/33 prefilled pens must never be shared between patients, even if the needle is changed. Sharing of the pen poses a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens.
Hyperglycemia Or Hypoglycemia With Changes In Insulin Regimen
Changes in SOLIQUA 100/33 regimen may affect glycemic control and predispose to hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. These changes should be made cautiously and only under close medical supervision, and the frequency of blood glucose monitoring should be increased. Adjustments in concomitant oral antidiabetic treatment may be needed. When converting from basal insulin therapy or lixisenatide to SOLIQUA 100/33 follow dosing recommendations [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Overdose Due To Medication Errors
SOLIQUA 100/33 contains two drugs: insulin glargine and lixisenatide. Administration of more than 60 units of SOLIQUA 100/33 daily can result in overdose of the lixisenatide component. Do not exceed the 20 mcg maximum recommended dose of lixisenatide or use with other glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists.
Accidental mix-ups between insulin products have been reported. To avoid medication errors between SOLIQUA 100/33 (an insulin containing product) and other insulins, instruct patients to always check the insulin label before each injection.
Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse reaction associated with insulin containing products, including SOLIQUA 100/33 [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Severe hypoglycemia can cause seizures, may be life-threatening or cause death. Hypoglycemia can impair concentration ability and reaction time; this may place an individual and others at risk in situations where these abilities are important (e.g., driving or operating other machinery). SOLIQUA 100/33 (an insulin-containing product), or any insulin, should not be used during episodes of hypoglycemia [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Hypoglycemia can happen suddenly and symptoms may differ in each individual and change over time in the same individual. Symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia may be less pronounced in patients with longstanding diabetes, in patients with diabetic nerve disease, in patients using medications that block the sympathetic nervous system (e.g., beta-blockers) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS], or in patients who experience recurrent hypoglycemia.
Risk Factors For Hypoglycemia
The risk of hypoglycemia generally increases with intensity of glycemic control. The risk of hypoglycemia after an injection is related to the duration of action of the insulin and, in general, is highest when the glucose lowering effect of the insulin is maximal. As with all insulin containing preparations, the glucose lowering effect time course of SOLIQUA 100/33 may vary in different individuals or at different times in the same individual and depends on many conditions, including the area of injection as well as the injection-site blood supply and temperature [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Other factors which may increase the risk of hypoglycemia include changes in meal pattern (e.g., macronutrient content or timing of meals), changes in level of physical activity, or changes to coadministered medication [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Patients with renal or hepatic impairment may be at higher risk of hypoglycemia [see Use In Specific Populations].
Risk Mitigation Strategies For Hypoglycemia
Patients and caregivers must be educated to recognize and manage hypoglycemia. Self-monitoring of blood glucose plays an essential role in the prevention and management of hypoglycemia. In patients at higher risk for hypoglycemia and patients who have reduced symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia, increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring is recommended.
The long-acting effect of the insulin glargine component of SOLIQUA 100/33 may delay recovery from hypoglycemia.
Acute Kidney Injury
Acute kidney injury and worsening of chronic renal failure, which may sometimes require hemodialysis, has been reported postmarketing in patients treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists, such as lixisenatide, a component of SOLIQUA 100/33. Some of these events were reported in patients without known underlying renal disease. A majority of the reported events occurred in patients who had experienced nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or dehydration.
Monitor renal function when initiating or escalating doses of SOLIQUA 100/33 in patients with renal impairment and in patients reporting severe gastrointestinal reactions. Advise patients of the potential risk of dehydration due to gastrointestinal adverse reactions and take precautions to avoid fluid depletion. SOLIQUA 100/33 is not recommended in patients with end-stage renal disease [see Use In Specific Populations].
Patients may develop antibodies to insulin and lixisenatide, components of SOLIQUA 100/33, following treatment. A pooled analysis of studies of lixisenatide-treated patients showed that 70% were antibody positive at Week 24. In the subset of patients (2.4%) with the highest antibody concentrations (>100 nmol/L), an attenuated glycemic response was observed. A higher incidence of allergic reactions and injection-site reactions occurred in antibody positive patients.
[see Anaphylaxis And Serious Hypersensitivity Reactions, ADVERSE REACTIONS].
If there is worsening glycemic control or failure to achieve targeted glycemic control, significant injection-site reactions or allergic reactions, alternative antidiabetic therapy should be considered.
All insulin-containing products, including SOLIQUA 100/33, cause a shift in potassium from the extracellular to intracellular space, possibly leading to hypokalemia. Untreated hypokalemia may cause respiratory paralysis, ventricular arrhythmia, and death. Monitor potassium levels in patients at risk for hypokalemia if indicated (e.g., patients using potassium-lowering medications, patients taking medications sensitive to serum potassium concentrations).
Fluid Retention And Heart Failure With Concomitant Use Of PPAR-Gamma Agonists
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma
agonists, can cause dose-related fluid retention, particularly when used in combination with insulin containing products, including SOLIQUA 100/33. Fluid retention may lead to or exacerbate heart failure. Patients treated with insulin containing products, including SOLIQUA 100/33, and a PPAR-gamma agonist should be observed for signs and symptoms of heart failure. If heart failure develops, it should be managed according to current standards of care, and discontinuation or dose reduction of the PPAR-gamma agonist must be considered.
There have been no clinical studies establishing macrovascular risk reduction with SOLIQUA 100/33 or any other antidiabetic drug.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide and Instructions for Use).
Inform patients that serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have been reported in clinical trials of SOLIQUA 100/33 and during postmarketing use of other GLP-1 receptor
agonists. If symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions occur, instruct patients to stop taking SOLIQUA 100/33 and seek medical advice promptly [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Risk Of Pancreatitis
Inform patients that persistent severe abdominal pain that may radiate to the back and which may or may not be accompanied by vomiting is the hallmark symptom of acute pancreatitis. Instruct patients to promptly discontinue SOLIQUA 100/33 and contact their physician if persistent severe abdominal pain occurs [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Never Share A SOLIQUA 100/33 Pen
Advise patients that they must never share a SOLIQUA 100/33 prefilled pen with another person, even if the needle is changed because doing so carries a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens.
Hyperglycemia Or Hypoglycemia
Inform patients that hypoglycemia is the most common adverse reaction with insulin containing products. Inform patients of the symptoms of hypoglycemia. Inform patients that the ability to concentrate and react may be impaired as a result of hypoglycemia. This may present a risk in situations where these abilities are especially important, such as driving or operating other machinery. Advise patients who have frequent hypoglycemia or reduced or absent warning signs of hypoglycemia to use caution when driving or operating machinery.
Advise patients that changes in SOLIQUA 100/33 regimen can predispose to hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Advise patients that changes in SOLIQUA 100/33 regimen should be made under close medical supervision [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Dehydration And Renal Failure
Advise patients treated with SOLIQUA 100/33 of the potential risk of dehydration due to gastrointestinal adverse reactions and to take precautions to avoid fluid depletion. Inform patients of the potential risk for worsening renal function, which in some cases may require dialysis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Overdose Due To Medication Errors
Inform patients that SOLIQUA 100/33 contains two drugs: insulin glargine and lixisenatide. Accidental mix-ups between insulin products have been reported. To avoid medication errors between SOLIQUA 100/33 and other insulin products, instruct patients to always check the label before each injection. Advise patients that the administration of more than 60 units of SOLIQUA 100/33 daily can result in overdose of the lixisenatide component. Instruct patients not to administer concurrently with other glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists.
Advise patients that SOLIQUA 100/33 must NOT be diluted or mixed with any other insulin or solution and that SOLIQUA 100/33 must only be used if the solution is clear and colorless to almost colorless with no particles visible [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Management Of Hypoglycemia And Handling Of Special Situations
Instruct patients on self-management procedures including glucose monitoring and management of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia.
Instruct patients on handling of special situations such as intercurrent conditions (illness, stress, or emotional disturbances), an inadequate or skipped insulin dose, inadvertent administration of an increased insulin dose, inadequate food intake, and skipped meals [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Use In Pregnancy
Advise patients to inform their physicians if they are pregnant or intend to become pregnant [see Use In Specific Populations].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
No animal studies have been conducted with the combination of insulin glargine and lixisenatide to evaluate carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, or impairment of fertility.
In mice and rats, standard two-year carcinogenicity studies with insulin glargine were performed at doses up to 0.455 mg/kg, which was for the rat approximately 2-times and for the mouse approximately 1-times the recommended human subcutaneous high dose of 60 Units/day (0.0364 mg/kg/day), based on mg/m2. The findings in female mice were not conclusive due to excessive mortality in all dose groups during the study. Histiocytomas were found at injection sites in male rats (statistically significant) and male mice (not statistically significant) in acid vehicle containing groups. These tumors were not found in female animals, in saline control, or insulin comparator groups using a different vehicle. The relevance of these findings to humans is unknown.
Insulin glargine was not mutagenic in tests for detection of gene mutations in bacteria and mammalian cells (Ames- and HGPRT-test) and in tests for detection of chromosomal aberrations (cytogenetics in vitro in V79 cells and in vivo in Chinese hamsters).
In a combined fertility and prenatal and postnatal study with insulin glargine in male and female rats at subcutaneous doses up to 0.36 mg/kg/day, which was approximately 2-times the recommended human subcutaneous maximum dose of 60 Units/day (0.0364 mg/kg/day), based on mg/m2, maternal toxicity due to dose-dependent hypoglycemia, including some deaths, was observed. Consequently, a reduction of the rearing rate occurred in the high-dose group only.
Carcinogenicity studies of 2-years durations were conducted in CD-1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats with twice daily subcutaneous doses of 40, 200, or 1000 mcg/kg. A statistically significant increase in thyroid C-cell adenomas was observed in males at 2,000 mcg/kg/day, resulting in exposures that are >180-times the human exposure achieved at 20 mcg/day based on plasma AUC.
Statistically significant increases in thyroid C-cell adenomas were seen at all doses in rats, resulting in systemic exposures that are ≥15-times the human exposure achieved at 20 mcg/day based on plasma AUC. A numerical increase in thyroid C-cell carcinomas was observed in rats at ≥400 mcg/kg/day, resulting in systemic exposures that are ≥56-times the human exposure achieved at 20 mcg/day based on plasma AUC.
Lixisenatide was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a standard battery of genotoxicity tests (bacterial mutagenicity [Ames], human lymphocyte chromosome aberration, mouse bone marrow micronucleus).
Impairment of fertility
Studies in which male and female rats received twice daily subcutaneous doses lixisenatide of 2, 29, or 414 mcg/kg prior to pairing through gestation day 6 did not indicate any adverse effects on male or female fertility in rats up to the highest dose tested, 414 mcg/kg, or approximately 400times
the clinical systemic exposure at 20 mcg/day based on mcg/m2.
Use In Specific Populations
Based on animal reproduction studies, there may be risks to the fetus from exposure to lixisenatide, a component of SOLIQUA 100/33, during pregnancy. SOLIQUA 100/33 should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
The limited available data with SOLIQUA 100/33 and lixisenatide in pregnant women are not sufficient to inform a drug-associated risk of major birth defects and miscarriage. Published studies with insulin glargine use during pregnancy have not reported a clear association with insulin glargine and major birth defect or miscarriage risk [see Data]. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations].
Lixisenatide administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis was associated with visceral closure and skeletal defects at systemic exposures that decreased maternal food intake and weight gain during gestation, and that are 1-time and 6-times higher than the 20 mcg/day highest clinical dose, respectively, based on plasma AUC [see Data].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6%-10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with an HbA1c >7 and has been reported to be as high as 20%-25% in women with a HbA1c >10. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2%-4% and 15%-20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, preeclampsia,
spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, still birth and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, still birth, and macrosomia related morbidity.
Published data do not report a clear association with insulin glargine and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes when insulin glargine is used during pregnancy. However, these studies cannot definitely establish the absence of any risk because of methodological limitations including small sample size and some lacking comparator groups.
Animal reproduction studies were not conducted with the combined products in SOLIQUA 100/33. The following data are based on studies conducted with the individual components of SOLIQUA 100/33.
In pregnant rats receiving twice daily subcutaneous doses of 2.5, 35, or 500 mcg/kg during organogenesis (gestation day 6 to 17), fetuses were present with visceral closure defects (e.g., microphthalmia, bilateral anophthalmia, diaphragmatic hernia) and stunted growth. Impaired ossification associated with skeletal malformations (e.g., bent limbs, scapula, clavicle, and pelvis) were observed at ≥2.5 mcg/kg/dose, resulting in systemic exposure that is 1-time the 20 mcg/day clinical dose, based on plasma AUC. Decreases in maternal body weight, food consumption, and motor activity were observed concurrent with the adverse fetal findings, which confounds the interpretation of relevance of these malformations to the human risk assessment. Placental transfer of lixisenatide to developing rat fetuses is low with a concentration ratio in fetal/maternal plasma of 0.1%.
In pregnant rabbits receiving twice daily subcutaneous doses of 2.5, 25, 250 mcg/kg during organogenesis (gestation day 6 to 18), fetuses were present with multiple visceral and skeletal malformations, including closure defects, at ≥5 mcg/kg/day or systemic exposures that are 6times
the 20 mcg/day highest clinical dose, based on plasma AUC. Decreases in maternal body weight, food consumption, and motor activity were observed concurrent with the fetal findings, which confounds the interpretation of relevance of these malformations to the human risk assessment. Placental transfer of lixisenatide to developing rabbit fetuses is low with a concentration ratio in fetal/maternal plasma of ≤0.3%. In a second study in pregnant rabbits, no
drug-related malformations were observed from twice daily subcutaneous doses of 0.15, 1.0, and
2.5 mcg/kg administered during organogenesis, resulting in systemic exposures up to 9-times the clinical exposure at 20 mcg/day, based on plasma AUC.
In pregnant rats given twice daily subcutaneous doses of 2, 20, or 200 mcg/kg from gestation day 6 through lactation, decreases in maternal body weight, food consumption, and motor activity were observed at all doses. Skeletal malformations and increased pup mortality were observed at 400 mcg/kg/day, which is approximately 200-times the 20 mcg/day clinical dose based on mcg/m2.
Subcutaneous reproduction and teratology studies have been performed with insulin glargine and regular human insulin in rats and Himalayan rabbits. Insulin glargine was given to female rats before mating, during mating, and throughout pregnancy at doses up to 0.36 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 2-times the recommended human subcutaneous high dose of 60 units/day (0.0364 mg/kg/day), based on mg/m2. In rabbits, doses up to 0.072 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 1times
the maximum recommended human subcutaneous dose of 60 units/day (0.0364 mg/kg/day), based on mg/m2, were administered during organogenesis. The effects of insulin glargine did not generally differ from those observed with regular human insulin in rats or rabbits. However, in rabbits, five fetuses from two litters of the high-dose group exhibited dilation of the cerebral ventricles. Fertility and early embryonic development appeared normal.
There is no information regarding the presence of lixisenatide and insulin glargine in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Endogenous insulin is present in human milk. Lixisenatide is present in rat milk [see Data].
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for SOLIQUA 100/33 and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from SOLIQUA 100/33 or from the underlying maternal condition.
A study in lactating rats showed low (9.4%) transfer of lixisenatide and its metabolites into milk and negligible (0.01%) levels of unchanged lixisenatide peptide in the gastric contents of weaning offspring.
Safety and effectiveness of SOLIQUA 100/33 have not been established in pediatric patients below 18 years of age.
Of the total number of subjects (n=834) in controlled clinical studies of patients with type 2 diabetes, who were treated with SOLIQUA 100/33, 25.2% (n=210) were ≥65 years of age and 4% (n=33) were ≥75 years of age. No overall differences in effectiveness and safety were observed in the subgroup analyses across the age groups.
Nevertheless, caution should be exercised when SOLIQUA 100/33 is administered to geriatric patients. In elderly patients with diabetes, the initial dosing, dose increments, and maintenance dosage should be conservative to avoid hypoglycemic reactions. Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in the elderly.
Frequent glucose monitoring and dose adjustment may be necessary for SOLIQUA 100/33 in patients with renal impairment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Some studies with human insulin have shown increased circulating levels of insulin in patients with renal failure.
In patients with mild and moderate renal impairment no dose adjustment is required but close monitoring for lixisenatide related adverse reactions and for changes in renal function is recommended because of higher incidences of hypoglycemia, nausea and vomiting that were observed in these patients. Increased gastrointestinal adverse reactions may lead to dehydration and acute renal failure and worsening of chronic failure in these patients.
Clinical experience in patients with severe renal impairment is limited as there were only 5 patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR 15 to less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) exposed to lixisenatide in all controlled studies. Lixisenatide exposure was higher in these patients [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Patients with severe renal impairment exposed to lixisenatide should be closely monitored for occurrence of gastrointestinal adverse reactions and for changes in renal function.
There is no therapeutic experience in patients with end-stage renal disease (eGFR <15 mL/min/1.73 m2), and it is not recommended to use SOLIQUA 100/33 in this population.
The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of SOLIQUA 100/33 has not been studied. Frequent glucose monitoring and dose adjustment may be necessary for SOLIQUA 100/33 in patients with hepatic impairment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Patients With Gastroparesis
Lixisenatide, one of the components of SOLIQUA 100/33, slows gastric emptying. Patients with preexisting gastroparesis were excluded from clinical trials of SOLIQUA 100/33. SOLIQUA 100/33 is not recommended in patients with severe gastroparesis.