Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section
Myocardial Ischemia, Myocardial Infarction, And Prinzmetal's Angina
MAXALT should not be given to patients with ischemic or vasospastic coronary artery disease. There have been rare reports of serious cardiac adverse reactions, including acute myocardial infarction, occurring within a few hours following administration of MAXALT. Some of these reactions occurred in patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD). 5-HT1 agonists, including MAXALT may cause coronary artery vasospasm (Prinzmetal's Angina), even in patients without a history of CAD.
Triptan-naïve patients who have multiple cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., increased age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, strong family history of CAD) should have a cardiovascular evaluation prior to receiving MAXALT. If there is evidence of CAD or coronary artery vasospasm, MAXALT should not be administered [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. For patients who have a negative cardiovascular evaluation, consideration should be given to administration of the first MAXALT dose in a medically-supervised setting and performing an electrocardiogram (ECG) immediately following MAXALT administration. Periodic cardiovascular evaluation should be considered in intermittent long-term users of MAXALT who have cardiovascular risk factors.
Life-threatening disturbances of cardiac rhythm, including ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation leading to death, have been reported within a few hours following the administration of 5-HT1 agonists. Discontinue MAXALT if these disturbances occur.
Chest, Throat, Neck And/Or Jaw Pain/Tightness/Pressure
As with other 5-HT1 agonists, sensations of tightness, pain, pressure, and heaviness in the precordium, throat, neck and jaw commonly occur after treatment with MAXALT and are usually non-cardiac in origin. However, if a cardiac origin is suspected, patients should be evaluated. Patients shown to have CAD and those with Prinzmetal's variant angina should not receive 5-HT1 agonists.
Cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke have occurred in patients treated with 5-HT1 agonists, and some have resulted in fatalities. In a number of cases, it appears possible that the cerebrovascular events were primary, the 5-HT1 agonist having been administered in the incorrect belief that the symptoms experienced were a consequence of migraine, when they were not. Also, patients with migraine may be at increased risk of certain cerebrovascular events (e.g., stroke, hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack). Discontinue MAXALT if a cerebrovascular event occurs.
As with other acute migraine therapies, before treating headaches in patients not previously diagnosed as migraineurs, and in migraineurs who present with atypical symptoms, care should be taken to exclude other potentially serious neurological conditions. MAXALT should not be administered to patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Other Vasospasm Reactions
5-HT1 agonists, including MAXALT, may cause non-coronary vasospastic reactions, such as peripheral vascular ischemia, gastrointestinal vascular ischemia and infarction (presenting with abdominal
pain and bloody diarrhea), splenic infarction, and Raynaud’s syndrome. In patients who experience symptoms or signs suggestive of non-coronary vasospasm reaction following the use of any 5-HT1 agonist, the suspected vasospasm reaction should be ruled out before receiving additional MAXALT
Reports of transient and permanent blindness and significant partial vision loss have been reported with the use of 5-HT1 agonists. Since visual disorders may be part of a migraine attack, a causal relationship between these events and the use of 5-HT1 agonists have not been clearly established.
Medication Overuse Headache
Overuse of acute migraine drugs (e.g., ergotamine, triptans, opioids, or a combination of drugs for 10 or more days per month) may lead to exacerbation of headache (medication overuse headache). Medication overuse headache may present as migraine-like daily headaches, or as a marked increase in frequency of migraine attacks. Detoxification of patients, including withdrawal of the overused drugs, and treatment of withdrawal symptoms (which often includes a transient worsening of headache) may be necessary.
Serotonin syndrome may occur with triptans, including MAXALT particularly during co-administration with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and MAO inhibitors [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, hyperthermia), neuromuscular aberrations (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination) and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). The onset of symptoms can occur within minutes to hours of receiving a new or a greater dose of a serotonergic medication. MAXALT treatment should be discontinued if serotonin syndrome is suspected [see DRUG INTERACTIONS and PATIENT INFORMATION].
Increase In Blood Pressure
Significant elevation in blood pressure, including hypertensive crisis with acute impairment of organ systems, has been reported on rare occasions in patients with and without a history of hypertension receiving 5-HT1 agonists, including MAXALT. In healthy young adult male and female patients who received maximal doses of MAXALT (10 mg every 2 hours for 3 doses), slight increases in blood pressure (approximately 2-3 mmHg) were observed. MAXALT is contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled hypertension [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION).
Risk Of Myocardial Ischemia And/Or Infarction, Prinzmetal's Angina, Other Vasospasm-Related Events, And Cerebrovascular Events
Inform patients that MAXALT may cause serious cardiovascular side effects such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Although serious cardiovascular events can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, slurring of speech, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Patients should be cautioned about the risk of serotonin syndrome with the use of MAXALT or other triptans, particularly during combined use with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Inform patients that MAXALT should not be used during pregnancy unless the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus [see Use In Specific Populations].
Advise patients to notify their healthcare provider if they are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed [see Use In Specific Populations].
Ability To Perform Complex Tasks
Since migraines or treatment with MAXALT may cause somnolence and dizziness, instruct patients to evaluate their ability to perform complex tasks during migraine attacks and after administration of MAXALT.
Medication Overuse Headache
Inform patients that use of acute migraine drugs for 10 or more days per month may lead to an exacerbation of headache, and encourage patients to record headache frequency and drug use (e.g., by keeping a headache diary) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Handling Of Orally Disintegrating Tablets Packages
Instruct patients not to remove the blister from the outer aluminum pouch until ready to use the orally disintegrating tablet inside [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Patients With Phenylketonuria
Inform phenylketonuric patients that MAXALT-MLT Orally Disintegrating Tablets contain phenylalanine (a component of aspartame). Each 5-mg orally disintegrating tablet contains 1.1 mg phenylalanine, and each 10-mg orally disintegrating tablet contains 2.1 mg phenylalanine [see Use In Specific Populations].
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Oral carcinogenicity studies of rizatriptan were conducted in mice (100 weeks) and rats (106 weeks) at doses of up to 125 mg/kg/day. There was no evidence of an increase in tumor incidence related to rizatriptan in either species. Plasma exposures (AUC) at the highest dose tested were approximately 150 (mice) and 240 times (rats) that in humans at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 30 mg/day.
Rizatriptan was neither mutagenic nor clastogenic in a battery of in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicity studies, including: the microbial mutagenesis (Ames) assay, in vitro mammalian cell mutagenesis and chromosomal aberration assays, and the in vivo chromosomal aberration assay in mouse.
Impairment Of Fertility
Oral administration of rizatriptan (0, 2, 10, or 100 mg/kg/day) to female rats prior to and during mating and continuing throughout gestation and lactation resulted in no effect on fertility; however, altered estrous cyclicity and delays in time to mating were observed at the highest dose tested. Plasma exposure at the no-effect dose (10 mg/kg/day) for reproductive toxicity was approximately 15 times that in humans at the MRHD.
Oral administration of rizatriptan (0, 5, 35, or 250 mg/kg/day) to male rats prior to and during mating resulted in no impairment of fertility or reproductive performance. Plasma exposure (AUC) at the highest dose tested was approximately 550 times that in humans at the MRHD.
Use In Specific Populations
Available human data on the use of MAXALT in pregnant women are not sufficient to draw conclusions about drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage.
In animal studies, developmental toxicity was observed following oral administration of rizatriptan during pregnancy (decreased fetal body weight in rats) or throughout pregnancy and lactation (increased mortality, decreased body weight, and neurobehavioral impairment in rat offspring) at maternal plasma exposures greater than that expected at therapeutic doses in humans [see Animal Data].
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and of miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. The reported rate of major birth defects among deliveries to women with migraine range from 2.2% to 2.9% and the reported rate of miscarriage was 17%, which are similar to rates reported in women without migraine.
Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk
In women with migraine, there is an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in the mother,
including pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension.
The Pregnancy Registry for MAXALT did not identify any pattern of congenital anomalies or other adverse birth outcomes over the period of 1998 to 2018. However, the lack of identification of any pattern should be viewed with caution, as the number of prospective reports with outcome information was low and did not provide sufficient power to detect an increased risk of individual birth defects associated with the use of MAXALT. Additionally, there was significant loss to follow-up in the prospective pregnancy reports, further complicating this assessment of an association between MAXALT and any pattern of congenital anomalies or other adverse birth outcomes.
In a study using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, live births to women who reported using triptans or ergots during pregnancy were compared with those of women who did not. Of the 157 births with first-trimester exposure to rizatriptan, 7 infants were born with malformations (relative risk 1.01 [95% CI: 0.40 to 2.08]). A study using linked data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway to the Norwegian Prescription Database compared pregnancy outcomes in women who redeemed prescriptions for triptans during pregnancy, as well as a migraine disease comparison group who redeemed prescriptions for triptans before pregnancy only, compared with a population control group. Of the 310 women who redeemed prescriptions for rizatriptan during the first trimester, 10 had infants with major congenital malformations (OR 1.03 [95% CI: 0.55 to 1.93]), while for the 271 women who redeemed prescriptions for rizatriptan before, but not during, pregnancy, 12 had infants with major congenital malformations (OR 1.48 [95% CI: 0.83 to 2.64]), each compared with the population comparison group.
When rizatriptan (0, 2, 10, or 100 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to pregnant rats throughout organogenesis, a decrease in fetal body weight was observed at the highest doses tested. At the mid dose (10 mg/kg/day), which was a no-effect dose for adverse effects on embryofetal development, plasma exposure (AUC) was approximately 15 times that in humans at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 30 mg/day. When rizatriptan (0, 5, 10, or 50 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to pregnant rabbits throughout organogenesis, no adverse fetal effects were observed. Plasma exposure (AUC) at the highest dose tested was 115 times that in humans at the MRHD. Placental transfer of drug to the fetus was demonstrated in both species.
Oral administration of rizatriptan (0, 2, 10, or 100 mg/kg/day) to female rats prior to and during mating and continuing throughout gestation and lactation resulted in reduced body weight in offspring from birth and throughout lactation at all but the lowest dose tested (2 mg/kg/day). Plasma exposure (AUC) at the no-effect dose (2 mg/kg/day) for adverse effects on postnatal development was similar to that in humans at the MRHD.
Oral administration of rizatriptan (0, 5, 100, or 250 mg/kg/day) throughout organogenesis and lactation resulted in neonatal mortality, reduced body weight (which persisted into adulthood), and impaired neurobehavioral function in offspring at all but the lowest dose tested. Plasma exposure (AUC) at the no-effect dose for adverse effects on postnatal development (5 mg/kg/day) was approximately 8 times that in humans at the MRHD.
There are no data on the presence of rizatriptan or any active metabolites in human milk, or on the effects of rizatriptan on the breastfed infant, or on milk production.
Rizatriptan was excreted in rat milk, with levels in milk approximately 6 times those in maternal plasma.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the
mother’s clinical need for MAXALT or MAXALT-MLT and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed
infant from MAXALT or MAXALT-MLT or from the underlying maternal condition.
Following oral administration of rizatriptan to lactating rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day, drug
concentrations of rizatriptan in milk samples exceeded maternal plasma drug concentrations by
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients under 6 years of age have not been established.
The efficacy and safety of MAXALT in the acute treatment of migraine in patients aged 6 to 17 years
was established in an adequate and well-controlled study [see Clinical Studies].
The incidence of adverse reactions reported for pediatric patients in the acute clinical trial was
similar in patients who received MAXALT to those who received placebo. The adverse reaction pattern in
pediatric patients is expected to be similar to that in adults.
Clinical studies of MAXALT did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to
determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has
not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.
Although the pharmacokinetics of rizatriptan were similar in elderly (aged ≥65 years) and in younger adults (n=17), in general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, starting at the low end of the dosing range. This reflects the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Geriatric patients who have other cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, smoking,
obesity, strong family history of coronary artery disease) should have a cardiovascular evaluation prior to
receiving MAXALT [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Patients With Phenylketonuria
Orally Disintegrating Tablets contain phenylalanine (a component of aspartame). The 5-and 10-mg orally disintegrating tablets contain 1.1 and 2.1 mg phenylalanine, respectively.