Respiratory And/Or CNS Depression In Pediatric Patients Less Than 6 Years Of Age
Cases of severe respiratory depression and coma, leading to permanent brain damage or death have been reported in patients less than 6 years of age who received Lomotil. Lomotil is contraindicated in patients less than 6 years of age due to these risks (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Anticholinergic And Opioid-Toxicities
Toxicities associated with the atropine and diphenoxylate components of Lomotil have been reported. The initial presenting symptoms may be delayed by up to 30 hours due to prolonged gastric emptying time induced by diphenoxylate hydrochloride. Clinical presentations vary in terms of which toxicity (anticholinergic vs. opioid) will present first or predominate; non-specific findings have been reported and include symptoms such as
drowsiness (see OVERDOSE).
Dehydration And Electrolyte Imbalance
The use of Lomotil should be accompanied by appropriate fluid and electrolyte therapy, when indicated. If severe dehydration or electrolyte imbalance is present, Lomotil should be withheld until appropriate corrective therapy has been initiated. Drug-induced inhibition of peristalsis may result in fluid retention in the intestine, which may further aggravate dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.
Gastrointestinal Complications In Patients With Infectious Diarrhea
Lomotil is contraindicated in patients with diarrhea associated with organisms that penetrate the GI mucosa (toxigenic E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella), and pseudomembranous enterocolitis (Clostridium difficile) associated with broad-spectrum antibiotics (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Antiperistaltic agents, including Lomotil, slow gastrointestinal motility and may enhance bacterial overgrowth and the release of bacterial exotoxins. Lomotil has been reported to result in serious GI complications in patients with infectious diarrhea, including sepsis, prolonged and/or worsened diarrhea. Prolonged fever and the delay in the resolution of stool pathogens were reported in study of Shigellosis in adults who used Lomotil vs. placebo.
Toxic Megacolon In Patients With Acute Ulcerative Colitis
In some patients with acute ulcerative colitis, agents that inhibit intestinal motility or prolong intestinal transit time have been reported to induce toxic megacolon. Consequently, patients with acute ulcerative colitis should be carefully observed and Lomotil therapy should be discontinued promptly if abdominal distention occurs or if other untoward symptoms develop.
Interaction With Meperidine Hydrocholoride
Since the chemical structure of diphenoxylate hydrochloride is similar to that of meperidine hydrochloride, the concurrent use of Lomotil with monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors may, in theory, precipitate hypertensive crisis.
Lomotil should be used with extreme caution in patients with advanced hepatorenal disease and in all patients with abnormal liver function since hepatic coma may be precipitated.
Interaction With CNS Depressants
Diphenoxylate hydrochloride may potentiate the action of other drugs that cause dizziness or drowsiness, including barbiturates, benzodiazepines and other sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, and tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, and alcohol. Therefore, the patient should be closely observed when any of these are used concomitantly.