Respiratory System: Hydrocodone produces dose-related respiratory depression
by acting directly on brain stem respiratory centers.
Cardiovascular System: Hypertension, postural hypotension and palpitations.
Genitourinary System: Ureteral spasm, spasm of vesical sphincters and
urinary retention have been reported with opiates.
Central Nervous System: Sedation, drowsiness, mental clouding, lethargy,
impairment of mental and physical performance, anxiety, fear, dysphoria, dizziness,
psychic dependence, mood changes and blurred vision.
Gastrointestinal System: Nausea and vomiting occur more frequently in
ambulatory than in recumbent patients.
Drug Abuse And Dependence
Special care should be exercised in prescribing hydrocodone for emotionally unstable patients and for those with a history of drug misuse. Such patients should be closely supervised when long-term therapy is contemplated.
HYCOTUSS (hydrocodone bitartrate and guaifenesin) Expectorant Syrup is a Schedule III opioid. Psychic dependence, physical dependence and tolerance may develop upon repeated administration of opioids; therefore, HYCOTUSS (hydrocodone bitartrate and guaifenesin) Expectorant Syrup should always be prescribed and administered with caution. Physical dependence is the condition in which continued administration of the drug is required to prevent the appearance of a withdrawal syndrome.
Patients physically dependent on opioids will develop an abstinence syndrome upon abrupt discontinuation of the opioid or following the administration of a opioid antagonist. The character and severity of the withdrawal symptoms are related to the degree of physical dependence. Manifestations of opioid withdrawal are similar to but milder than that of morphine and include lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, sweating, restlessness, dilated pupils, anorexia, gooseflesh, irritability and tremor. In more severe forms, nausea, vomiting, intestinal spasm and diarrhea, increased heart rate and blood pressure, chills, and pains in bones and muscles of the back and extremities may occur. Peak effects will usually be apparent at 48 to 72 hours.
Treatment of withdrawal is usually managed by providing sufficient quantities
of an opioid to suppress severe withdrawal symptoms and then gradually
reducing the dose of opioid over a period of several days.