Included as part of the "PRECAUTIONS" Section
Severe hypersensitivity reactions may occur with IGIV products, including ASCENIV. In case of hypersensitivity, discontinue ASCENIV infusion immediately and institute appropriate treatment. Medications such as epinephrine should be available for treatment of acute hypersensitivity reactions.
ASCENIV contains trace amounts of IgA (≤ 200 micrograms per milliliter) (see DESCRIPTION). Patients with known antibodies to IgA may have a greater risk of developing potentially severe hypersensitivity and anaphylactic reactions. ASCENIV is contraindicated in IgA-deficient patients with antibodies against IgA and a history of hypersensitivity reaction (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Thrombosis may occur following treatment with immune globulin products, including ASCENIV.4,5,6 Risk factors may include: advanced age, prolonged immobilization, hypercoagulable conditions, history of venous or arterial thrombosis, use of estrogens, indwelling central vascular catheters, hyperviscosity and cardiovascular risk factors. Thrombosis may occur in the absence of known risk factors.
Consider baseline assessment of blood viscosity in patients at risk for hyperviscosity, including patients with cryoglobulins, fasting chylomicronemia/markedly high triacylglycerols (triglycerides), or monoclonal gammopathies. For patients at risk of thrombosis, administer ASCENIV at the minimum dose and infusion rate practicable. Ensure adequate hydration in patients before administration. Monitor for signs and symptoms of thrombosis and assess blood viscosity in patients at risk for hyperviscosity (see BOX WARNING, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION , PATIENT INFORMATION).
Acute Renal Dysfunction And Acute Renal Failure
Acute renal dysfunction/failure, osmotic nephrosis, and death1,2 may occur upon use of human IGIV products. Ensure that patients are not volume depleted before administering ASCENIV. Periodic monitoring of renal function and urine output is particularly important in patients judged to be at increased risk of developing acute renal failure.2 Assess renal function, including measurement of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine, before the initial infusion of ASCENIV and at appropriate intervals thereafter. If renal function deteriorates, consider discontinuing ASCENIV (see PATIENT INFORMATION). In patients who are at risk of developing renal dysfunction, because of pre-existing renal insufficiency or predisposition to acute renal failure (such as diabetes mellitus, hypovolemia, overweight, use of concomitant nephrotoxic medicinal products or age of >65 years), administer ASCENIV at the minimum infusion rate practicable (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Hyperproteinemia, Increased Serum Viscosity, And Hyponatremia
Hyperproteinemia, increased serum viscosity, and hyponatremia may occur in patients receiving IGIV treatment, including ASCENIV. It is critical to clinically distinguish true hyponatremia from a pseudohyponatremia that is associated with or causally related to hyperproteinemia with concomitant decreased calculated serum osmolality or elevated osmolar gap, because treatment aimed at decreasing serum free water in patients with pseudohyponatremia may lead to volume depletion, a further increase in serum viscosity, and a possible predisposition to thrombotic events.3
Aseptic Meningitis Syndrome (AMS)
AMS may occur with IGIV treatments, including ASCENIV. AMS usually begins within several hours to 2 days following IGIV treatment. Discontinuation of IGIV treatment has resulted in remission of AMS within several days without sequelae.7,8,9
AMS may occur more frequently in association with high doses (2 g/kg) and/or rapid infusion of IGIV.
AMS is characterized by the following signs and symptoms: severe headache, nuchal rigidity, drowsiness, fever, photophobia, painful eye movements, nausea, and vomiting (see PATIENT INFORMATION). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies frequently reveal pleocytosis up to several thousand cells per cubic millimeter, predominantly from the granulocytic series, and elevated protein levels up to several hundred mg/dL, but negative culture results. Conduct a thorough neurological examination on patients exhibiting such signs and symptoms, including CSF studies, to rule out other causes of meningitis.
IGIV products, including ASCENIV, may contain blood group antibodies that can act as hemolysins and induce in vivo coating of red blood cells (RBCs) with immunoglobulin, causing a positive direct antiglobulin reaction and hemolysis.10,11,12 Delayed hemolytic anemia can develop subsequent to IGIV treatment due to enhanced RBC sequestration,13 and acute hemolysis, consistent with intravascular hemolysis, has been reported.
Monitor patients for clinical signs and symptoms of hemolysis (see PATIENT INFORMATION). If these are present after ASCENIV infusion, perform appropriate confirmatory laboratory testing. If transfusion is indicated for patients who develop hemolysis with clinically compromising anemia after receiving IGIV, perform adequate cross-matching to avoid exacerbating ongoing hemolysis.
Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI)
Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema may occur in patients following IGIV treatment,14 including ASCENIV. TRALI is characterized by severe respiratory distress, pulmonary edema, hypoxemia, normal left ventricular function, and fever. Symptoms typically appear within 1 to 6 hours following treatment.
Monitor patients for pulmonary adverse reactions. If TRALI is suspected, perform appropriate tests for the presence of anti-neutrophil antibodies in both the product and the patient’s serum (see PATIENT INFORMATION).
TRALI may be managed using oxygen therapy with adequate ventilatory support.
Transmissible Infectious Agents
Because ASCENIV is made from human blood, it may carry a risk of transmitting infectious agents, e.g., viruses, the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and theoretically, the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) agent.
All infections suspected by a physician possibly to have been transmitted by this product should be reported by the physician or other healthcare provider to ADMA Biologics at (1-800-458-4244). Before prescribing ASCENIV, the physician should discuss the risks and benefits of its use with the patient (see PATIENT INFORMATION).
Monitoring Laboratory Tests
- Periodic monitoring of renal function and urine output is particularly important in patients at increased risk of developing acute renal failure. Assess renal function, including measurement of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine, before the initial infusion of ASCENIV and at appropriate intervals thereafter.
- Because of the potentially increased risk of thrombosis with IGIV treatment, consider baseline assessment of blood viscosity in patients at risk for hyperviscosity, including those with cryoglobulins, fasting chylomicronemia/markedly high triacylglycerols (triglycerides), or monoclonal gammopathies.
- If signs and/or symptoms of hemolysis are present after an infusion of ASCENIV, perform appropriate laboratory testing for confirmation.
- If TRALI is suspected, perform appropriate tests for the presence of anti-neutrophil antibodies in both the product and patient’s serum.
Interference With Laboratory Tests
After infusion of immunoglobulin, the transitory rise of the various passively transferred antibodies in the patient’s blood may yield positive serological testing results, with the potential for misleading interpretation. Passive transmission of antibodies to erythrocyte antigens (e.g., A, B, and D) may cause a positive direct or indirect antiglobulin (Coombs’) test.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
No animal studies were conducted to evaluate the carcinogenic or mutagenic effects of ASCENIV or its effects on fertility.
Use In Specific Populations
No human data are available to indicate the presence or absence of drug-associated risk. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with ASCENIV. It is not known whether ASCENIV can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Immune globulins cross the placenta from maternal circulation increasingly after 30 weeks of gestation. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20% respectively. ASCENIV should be given to pregnant women only if clearly needed.17,18
No human data are available to indicate the presence or absence drug-associated risk. The developmental and health benefits of breast feeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for ASCENIV and any potential adverse effects on the breast-fed infant from ASCENIV or from the underlying maternal condition.
ASCENIV was evaluated in 11 pediatric subjects (6 children less than 12 years and 5 adolescents age 12 – 16 years) with primary humoral immunodeficiency (PI). The pharmacokinetic (PK), safety, and effectiveness profile of ASCENIV in adolescent subjects appeared to be comparable to that demonstrated in adult subjects. There are insufficient PK, safety, and effectiveness data from pediatric subjects younger than 12 years. Safety and effectiveness has not been studied in pediatric patients with PI who are under the age of 3 years (see Clinical Studies).
Clinical studies of ASCENIV did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
1. Gupta N, Ahmed I, Nissel-Horowitz S, Patel D, Mehrotra B. Intravenous gammaglobulin-associated acute renal failure. Am J Hematol 2001; 66:151-152.
2. Cayco, A.V., M.A. Perazella, and J.P. Hayslett. Renal insufficiency after intravenous immune globulin therapy: a report of two cases and an analysis of the literature. J Am Soc Nephrol 1997; 8:1788-1794.
3. Steinberger BA, Ford SM, Coleman TA. Intravenous immune globulin therapy results in post-infusional hyperproteinemia, increased serum viscosity, and pseudohyponatremia. Am J Hematol 2003; 73:97-100.
4. Dalakas MC. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin and serum viscosity: risk of precipitating thromboembolic events. Neurology 1994; 44:223-226.
5. Woodruff RK, Grigg AP, Firkin FC, Smith IL. Fatal thrombotic events during treatment of autoimmune thrombocytopenia with intravenous immunoglobulin in elderly patients. Lancet 1986; 2:217-218.
6. Wolberg AS, Kon RH, Monroe DM, Hoffman M. Coagulation factor XI is a contaminant in intravenous immunoglobulin preparations. Am J Hematol 2000; 65:30-34.
7. Casteels-Van Daele, M., et al. Intravenous immune globulin and acute aseptic meningitis [letter]. N Engl J Med 1990; 323:614-615.
8. Kato, E., et al. Administration of immune globulin associated with aseptic meningitis [letter]. Jama 1988; 259:3269-3271.
9. Scribner, C.L., et al. Aseptic meningitis and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy [editorial, comment]. Ann Intern Med 1994; 121:305-306.
10. Copelan EA, Stohm PL, Kennedy MS, Tutschka PJ. Hemolysis following intravenous immune globulin therapy. Transfusion 1986; 26:410-412.
11. Thomas MJ, Misbah SA, Chapel HM, Jones M, Elrington G, Newsom-Davis J. Hemolysis after high-dose intravenous Ig. Blood 1993; 15:3789.
12. Wilson JR, Bhoopalam N, Fisher M. Hemolytic anemia associated with intravenous immunoglobulin. Muscle & Nerve 1997; 20:1142-1145.
13. Kessary-Shoham H, Levy Y, Shoenfeld Y, Lorber M, Gershon H. In vivo administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) can lead to enhanced erythrocyte sequestration. J Autoimmune 1999; 13:129-135.
14. Rizk A, Gorson KC, Kenney L, Weinstein R. Transfusion-related acute lung injury after the infusion of IVIG. Transfusion 2001; 41:264-268.
17. Hammarstrom L, Smith CIE. Placental transfer of intravenous immunoglobulin. Lancet 1986; 1:681.
18. Sidiropoulos D, Herrmann U, Morell A, von Muralt G, Barandun S. Transplacental passage of intravenous immunoglobulin in the last trimester of pregnancy. J Pediatr 1986; 109:505-508.