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|D5W, D5NS, D5LR, LR, 0.45NS, NS
| Solutions of cyclophosphamide may be injected intravenously, intramuscularly, intraperitoneally, or intrapleurally if constituted by adding 0.9% sodium chloride solution, or they may be infused intravenously in the diluents listed above.1
IVPB or continuous intravenous infusion2: I.V. infusions may be administered over 1 to 24 hours. Doses >500 mg to approximately 2 grams may be administered over 20-30 minutes.
Stability/Storage: Constituted cyclophosphamide is chemically and physically stable for 24 hours at room temperature or for six days in the refrigerator; it does not contain any antimicrobial preservative and thus care must be taken to assure the sterility of prepared solutions.1
|Stability / Miscellaneous
Cyclophosphamide is well absorbed after oral administration with a bioavailability greater than 75%. The unchanged drug has an elimination half-life of 3 to 12 hours. It is eliminated primarily in the form of metabolites, but from 5 to 25% of the dose is excreted in urine as unchanged drug. Several cytotoxic and noncytotoxic metabolites have been identified in urine and in plasma. Concentrations of metabolites reach a maximum in plasma 2 to 3 hours after an intravenous dose. Plasma protein binding of unchanged drug is low but some metabolites are bound to an extent greater than 60%. It has not been demonstrated that any single metabolite is responsible for either the therapeutic or toxic effects of cyclophosphamide. Although elevated levels of metabolites of cyclophosphamide have been observed in patients with renal failure, increased clinical toxicity in such patients has not been demonstrated.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Treatment of Malignant Diseases Adults and Children
Oral cyclophosphamide dosing is usually in the range of 1 to 5 mg/kg/day for both initial and maintenance dosing.
Many other regimens of intravenous and oral cyclophosphamide have been reported. Dosages must be adjusted in accord with evidence of antitumor activity and/or leukopenia. The total leukocyte count is a good, objective guide for regulating dosage. Transient decreases in the total white blood cell count to 2000 cells/mm3 (following short courses) or more persistent reduction to 3000 cells/mm3 (with continuing therapy) are tolerated without serious risk of infection if there is no marked granulocytopenia.
When cyclophosphamide is included in combined cytotoxic regimens, it may be necessary to reduce the dose of cyclophosphamide as well as that of the other drugs.
Cyclophosphamide and its metabolites are dialyzable although there are probably quantitative differences depending upon the dialysis system being used. Patients with compromised renal function may show some measurable changes in pharmacokinetic parameters of cyclophosphamide metabolism, but there is no consistent evidence indicating a need for cyclophosphamide dosage modification in patients with renal function impairment.
Treatment of Nonmalignant Diseases Biopsy Proven “Minimal Change’’ Nephrotic Syndrome in Children
Preparation and Handling of Solutions
Cyclophosphamide should be prepared for parenteral use by adding 0.9% sterile sodium chloride solution if injected directly.
Cyclophosphamide should be prepared for parenteral use by infusion by adding Sterile Water for Injection, USP. Cyclophosphamide, constituted in water, is hypotonic and should not be injected directly. Add the diluent to the vial and shake it vigorously to dissolve. If the powder fails to dissolve immediately and completely, it is advisable to allow the vial to stand for a few minutes.
Solutions of cyclophosphamide may be injected intravenously, intramuscularly, intraperitoneally, or intrapleurally if constituted by adding 0.9% sodium chloride solution, or they may be infused intravenously in the following:
Dextrose Injection, USP (5% dextrose)
Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injection, USP (5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride)
5% Dextrose and Ringer’s Injection
Lactated Ringer’s Injection, USP
Sodium Chloride Injection, USP (0.45% sodium chloride)
Sodium Lactate Injection, USP (1/6 molar sodium lactate)
Constituted cyclophosphamide is chemically and physically stable for 24 hours at room temperature or for six days in the refrigerator; it does not contain any antimicrobial preservative and thus care must be taken to assure the sterility of prepared solutions.
The osmolarities of solutions of cyclophosphamide constituted with water and 0.9% sodium chloride solution are found in the following table:
Isotonic 0.9% sodium chloride solution has an osmolarity of 289 mOsm/L.
Cyclophosphamide solution in water is hypotonic.
Extemporaneous liquid preparations of cyclophosphamide for oral administration may be prepared by dissolving cyclophosphamide in Aromatic Elixir, N.F.& Such preparations should be stored under refrigeration in glass containers and used within 14 days.
NDC 10019-955-01 500 mg vial, carton of 1
NDC 10019-956-01 1.0 g vial, carton of 1
NDC 10019-957-01 2.0 g vial, carton of 1
Store vials at or below 25°C (77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. During transport or storage of cyclophosphamide vials, temperature influences can lead to melting of the active ingredient, cyclophosphamide. Vials containing melted substance can be visually differentiated. Melted cyclophosphamide is a clear or yellowish viscous liquid usually found as a connected phase or in droplets in the affected vials. Do not use cyclophosphamide vials if there are signs of melting.
Procedures for proper handling and disposal of anticancer drugs should be considered. Several guidelines on this subject have been published.1-8 There is no general agreement that all of the procedures recommended in the guidelines are necessary or appropriate.
1) [PACKAGE INSERT DATA] : CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE injection, powder, for solution. Baxter Healthcare Corporation. Deerfield, IL 60015 USA. Revision Date 07/2009.
2) Solimando, Dominic A. Drug Information Handbook for Oncology: A Complete Guide to Combination Chemotherapy Regimens, 8th ed. Hudson, OH: Lexi-Comp, Inc.; 2010.
Proper handling and disposal: ONS Clinical Practice Committee. Cancer Chemotherapy Guidelines and Recommendations for Practice. Pittsburgh, PA: Oncology Nursing Society; 1999:32-41. Recommendations for the Safe Handling of Parenteral Antineoplastic Drugs, NIH Publication No. 83-2621. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. AMA Council Report. Guidelines for Handling Parenteral Antineoplastics. JAMA, 1985; 253 (11): 1590-1592. National Study Commission on Cytotoxic Exposure—Recommendations for Handling Cytotoxic Agents. Available from Louis P. Jeffrey, Sc.D., Chairman, National Study Commission on Cytotoxic Exposure, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, 179 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115. Clinical Oncological Society of Australia. Guidelines and Recommendations for Safe Handling of Antineoplastic Agents. Med J Australia 1983; 1:426-428. Jones RB, et al: Safe Handling of chemotherapeutic agents: A Report from the Mount Sinai Medical Center. CA—A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 1983; (Sept/Oct) 258-263. American Society of Hospital Pharmacists Technical Assistance Bulletin on Handling Cytotoxic and Hazardous Drugs. Am J Hosp Pharm 1990; 47:1033-1049. Controlling Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Drugs. (OSHA WORK PRACTICE GUIDELINES). Am J Health Syst Pharm 1996; 53:1669-1685.