||3.5 – 5.0 g/dl
||Decreased: cystic fibrosis, chronic glomerulonephritis, alcoholic cirrhosis, Hodkin’s disease, malnutrition, nephrotic syndrome, multiple myeloma, inflammatory bowel disease, leukemia, collagen-vascular diseases
||upright: 4-31 ng/dl
||Increased: hyperaldosterism (primary or secondary). Decreased: adrenal insufficiency, panhypopituitarism.
||Increased: acute pancreatitis, pancreatic duct obstruction, alcohol ingestion, mumps, parotitidis, renal disease, cholecystitis, peptic ulcers, intestinal obstruction, mesenteric thrombosis, postop abdominal surgery. Decreased: Liver damage, pancreatic destruction (pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis)
||Total: 0.2 – 1.2 mg/dl; direct: <0.3 mg/dl
||Increased total: hepatic damage (hepatitis, toxins, cirrhosis), biliary obstruction, hemolysis, fasting.
Increased direct (conjugated): biliary obstruction / cholestasis, drug induced cholestasis.
||Increased: renal failure, pre-renal azotemia, shock, volume depletion, postrenal (obstruction), GI bleeding, stress, drugs (aminoglycosides, vanco etc). Decreased: starvation, liver failure, pregnancy, infancy, nephrotic syndrome, overhydration.
||8.8 – 10.3 mg/dl
||Increased: primary hyperthyroidism, parathyroid hormone secreting tumors, vitamin D excess, metastatic bone tumors, chronic renal failure, milk-alkali syndrome, osteoporosis, thiazide drugs, pagets disease, multiple myeloma, sarcoidosis. Decreased: hypoparathyroidism, insufficient vitamin D, hypomagnesemia, renal tubular acidosis, hypoalbuminemia, chronic renal failure (phosphate retention), acute pancreatitis
||Increased: respiratory acidosis, compensation for metabolic acidosis, severe vomiting, primary aldosteronism, volume contraction, emphysema
Decreased: Respiratory alkalosis, starvation, DKA, lactic acidosis, alcoholic ketoacidosis, severe diarrhea, renal failure, drugs (salicylates etc), dehydration.
||Increased: diarrhea, renal tubular acidosis, mineralocorticoid deficiency, hyperalimentation, medications (acetazolamide, ammonium chloride).
Decreased: mineralocorticoid excess, vomiting, diabetes mellitus with ketoacidosis
||0.5 – 1.4 mg/dl
||Increased: renal failure including prerenal, drug-induced (aminoglycosides, vancomycin, others), acromegaly. Decreased: loss of muscle mass, pregnancy.
||13 – 300 ng/ml
||Decreased: iron deficiency anemia (earliest sign)
|Iron binding capacity (TIBC)
||Increased: acute and chronic blood loss, iron deficiency anemia, hepatitis, oral contraceptives. Decreased: anemia of infection and chronic diseases, cirrhosis, nephrosis, hemochromatosis
||1.6 – 2.6 mg/dl
||Increased: renal failure, hypothyroidism, severe dehydration, lithium intoxication, antacids, Addison’s disease. Decreased: hyperthyroidism, aldosteronism, diuretics, malabsorption, hyperalimentation, nasogastric suctioning, chronic dialysis, renal tubular acidosis, drugs (aminoglycosides, cisplatin, ampho B), hungry bone syndrome, hypophosphatemia, intracellular shifts with respiratory or metabolic acidosis.
||278 – 298 mOsm/kg
||Increased: hypernatremia, hyperglycemia, water loss (diuretics, diabetes..), alcohol ingestion, ethylene glycol ingestion, mannitol. Decreased: hyponatremia, diuretics, Addison’s disease, SIADH.
||2.5 – 4.5 mg/dl
||Increased: hypoparathyroidism, excess vitamin D, secondary hyperparathyroidism, renal failure, bone disease, addisons disease. Decreased: hyperparathyroidism, alcoholism, diabetes, hyperalimentation, acidosis, hypomagnesemia, diuretics, vitamin D deficiency, phosphate-binding antacids.
||Increased: iron deficiency anemia. Decreased: acute and chronic inflammatory states, poor nutritional status, chronic liver disease.
||Male: 3 – 8 mg/dl. female: 2-7 mg/dl
||Increased: gout, renal failure, drugs (diuretics, others), hypothyroidism, chemotherapy, parathyroid diseases, lactic acidosis. Decreased: drugs (allopurinol, probenecid, others), Wilson’s disease, Fanconi’s syndrome.
Basic Skills in Interpreting Laboratory Data, 5th Ed. (2013) Lee M (editor). American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, ISBN 1585283436.Drug information handbook: a comprehensive resource for all clinicians and healthcare professionals, 24th Ed. (2015) Lexi-Comp