Infectious Disease -ALL Agents (INDEX)
Infectious Disease -ALL Agents (INDEX)
Nephrotoxicity: Bacitracin in parenteral (intramuscular) therapy may cause renal failure due to tubular and glomerular necrosis. Its use should be restricted to infants with staphylococcal pneumonia and empyema when due to organisms shown to be susceptible to bacitracin. It should be used only where adequate laboratory facilities are available and when constant supervision of the patient is possible.
Renal function should be carefully determined prior to and daily during therapy. The recommended daily dose should not be exceeded and fluid intake and urinary output should be maintained at proper levels to avoid kidney toxicity. If renal toxicity occurs the drug should be discontinued. The concurrent use of other nephrotoxic drugs, particularly streptomycin, kanamycin, polymyxin B, polymyxin E (colistin), neomycin, and vancomycin, should be avoided. DESCRIPTION
Bacitracin for Injection, USP is a sterile antibiotic for intramuscular administration. Bacitracin is derived from cultures of Bacillus subtilis (Tracey). It is a white to pale buff, hygroscopic powder, odorless or having a slight odor. It is freely soluble in water; insoluble in acetone, chloroform, and ether. While soluble in alcohol, methanol, and glacial acetic acid, there is some insoluble residue. It is precipitated from its solutions and inactivated by many of the heavy metals.
Each vial contains 50,000 units of bacitracin.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
In accord with the statements in the “Warning Box” the use of intramuscular bacitracin is limited to the treatment of infants with pneumonia and empyema caused by staphylococci shown to be susceptible to the drug.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of bacitracin and other antibacterial drugs, bacitracin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
This drug is contraindicated in those individuals with a history of previous hypersensitivity or toxic reaction to it.
WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS
See "Warning Box"; for precautions in regard to kidney toxicity associated with intramuscular use of bacitracin.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Adequate fluid intake should be maintained orally, or if necessary, by parenteral method.
As with other antibiotics, use of this drug may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, appropriate therapy should be instituted.
Prescribing Bacitracin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
There have been reports of anaphylaxis and/or allergic contact dermatitis in patients exposed to Bacitracin in non-approved indications.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
TO BE ADMINISTERED INTRAMUSCULARLY ONLY
Infant dose: For infants under 2500 grams - 900 units/kg/24 hours in 2 or 3 divided doses. For infants over 2500 grams - 1,000 units/kg/24 hours, in 2 or 3 divided doses. Intramuscular injections of the solution should be given in the upper outer quadrant of the buttocks, alternating right and left and avoiding multiple injections in the same region because of the transient pain following injection.
Preparation of Solutions - Should be dissolved in sodium chloride injection containing 2 percent procaine hydrochloride. The concentration of the antibiotic in the solution should not be less than 5,000 units per mL nor more than 10,000 units per mL.
Diluents containing parabens should not be used to reconstitute bacitracin; cloudy solutions and precipitate formation have occurred.
Reconstitution of the 50,000 unit vial with 9.8 mL of diluent will result in a concentration of 5,000 units per mL.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
Bacitracin for Injection, USP is available in vials containing 50,000 units.
NDC 39822-0277-5. Boxes of ten vials use NDC 39822-0277-2.
Store the unreconstituted product in a refrigerator 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F).
Solutions are stable for one week when stored in a refrigerator 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F).
X-Gen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Big Flats, 14814
Revised June 2012
SOURCE: Package insert data:
Colistimethate for injection (colistimethate sodium) is a sterile parenteral antibiotic product which, when reconstituted (see Reconstitution), is suitable for intramuscular or intravenous administration.
Each vial contains colistimethate sodium or pentasodium colistinmethanesulfonate (equivalent to 150 mg colistin base). Colistimethate sodium appears as a white to slightly yellow lyophilized cake. The sodium content is approximately 0.099 mg (0.0043 mEq) of sodium per milligram of Colistin. Colistimethate sodium is a polypeptide antibiotic with an approximate molecular weight of 1750.
Colistimethate sodium is a surface active agent which penetrates into and disrupts the bacterial cell membrane. It has been shown to have bactericidal activity against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section:
Aerobic gram-negative microorganisms: Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Susceptibility Tests: Colistimethate sodium is no longer listed as an antimicrobial for routine testing and reporting by clinical microbiology laboratories.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Colistimethate for injection is indicated for the treatment of acute or chronic infections due to sensitive strains of certain gram-negative bacilli. It is particularly indicated when the infection is caused by sensitive strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This antibiotic is not indicated for infections due to Proteus or Neisseria. Colistimethate for injection has proven clinically effective in treatment of infections due to the following gram-negative organisms: Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Colistimethate for injection may be used to initiate therapy in serious infections that are suspected to be due to gram-negative organisms and in the treatment of infections due to susceptible gram-negative pathogenic bacilli.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of colistimethate for injection and other antibacterial drugs, colistimethate for injection should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
The use of colistimethate for injection is contraindicated for patients with a history of sensitivity to the drug or any of its components.
Maximum daily dose should not exceed 5 mg/kg/day (2.3 mg/lb) with normal renal function.
Transient neurological disturbances may occur. These include circumoral paresthesia or numbness, tingling or formication of the extremities, generalized pruritus, vertigo, dizziness, and slurring of speech. For these reasons, patients should be warned not to drive vehicles or use hazardous machinery while on therapy. Reduction of dosage may alleviate symptoms. Therapy need not be discontinued, but such patients should be observed with particular care.
Nephrotoxicity can occur and is probably a dose-dependent effect of colistimethate sodium. These manifestations of nephrotoxicity are reversible following discontinuation of the antibiotic.
Overdosage can result in renal insufficiency, muscle weakness, and apnea (see OVERDOSAGE section). See package insert for PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions subsection for use concomitantly with other antibiotics and curariform drugs.
Respiratory arrest has been reported following intramuscular administration of colistimethate sodium. Impaired renal function increases the possibility of apnea and neuromuscular blockade following administration of colistimethate sodium. Therefore, it is important to follow recommended dosing guidelines. See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section for use in renal impairment.
Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antimicrobial agents, and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of antibacterial agents.
Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia. Studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile is a primary cause of "antibiotic-associated colitis."
After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, appropriate therapeutic measures should be initiated. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to drug discontinuation alone. In moderate-to-severe cases, consideration should be given to management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation, and treatment with an antibacterial drug clinically effective against Clostridium difficile colitis.
Since colistimethate for injection is eliminated mainly by renal excretion, it should be used with caution when the possibility of impaired renal function exists. The decline in renal function with advanced age should be considered.
When actual renal impairment is present, colistimethate for injection may be used, but the greatest caution should be exercised and the dosage should be reduced in proportion to the extent of the impairment. Administration of amounts of colistimethate for injection in excess of renal excretory capacity will lead to high serum levels and can result in further impairment of renal function, initiating a cycle which, if not recognized, can lead to acute renal insufficiency, renal shutdown, and further concentration of the antibiotic to toxic levels in the body. At this point, interference of nerve transmission at neuromuscular junctions may occur and result in muscle weakness and apnea (see OVERDOSAGE section).
Signs indicating the development of impaired renal function include: diminishing urine output, rising BUN and serum creatinine and decreased creatinine clearance. Therapy with colistimethate for injection should be discontinued immediately if signs of impaired renal function occur. However, if it is necessary to reinstate the drug, dosing should be adjusted accordingly after drug plasma levels have fallen (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section).
Prescribing colistimethate for injection in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
see package insert for additional information....
Overdosage with colistimethate sodium can cause neuromuscular blockade characterized by paresthesia, lethargy, confusion, dizziness, ataxia, nystagmus, disorders of speech and apnea. Respiratory muscle paralysis may lead to apnea, respiratory arrest and death. Overdosage with the drug can also cause acute renal failure, manifested as decreased urine output and increases in serum concentrations of BUN and creatinine.
As in any case of overdose, colistimethate sodium therapy should be discontinued and general supportive measures should be utilized.
It is unknown whether colistimethate sodium can be removed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis in overdose cases.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Colistin dosing calculator (beta) - output based on the latest guidelines located (July 2014). Package insert guidelines in many cases may lead to sub-therapeutic steady state concentrations (Css) based on the MIC for the target organism(s), and the site and severity of the infection.
Colistimethate for injection is supplied in vials containing colistimethate sodium equivalent to 150 mg colistin base activity per vial.
The 150 mg vial should be reconstituted with 2.0 mL Sterile Water for Injection, USP. The reconstituted solution provides colistimethate sodium at a concentration equivalent to 75 mg/mL colistin base activity.
During reconstitution swirl gently to avoid frothing.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. If these conditions are observed, the product should not be used.
Adults and pediatric patients - Intravenous or Intramuscular Administration:
Colistimethate for injection should be given in 2 to 4 divided doses at dose levels of 2.5 to 5 mg/kg per day for patients with normal renal function, depending on the severity of the infection.
In obese individuals, dosage should be based on ideal body weight.
The daily dose should be reduced in the presence of renal impairment. Modifications of dosage in the presence of renal impairment are presented in Table 1:
|Note: The suggested unit dose is 2.5 to 5 mg/kg; however, the time INTERVAL between injections should be increased in the presence of impaired renal function.|
|Renal Function||Degree of Impairment|
|Plasma creatinine, mg/100 mL||0.7-1.2||1.3-1.5||1.6 -2.5||2.6- 4.0|
|Urea clearance, % of normal||80-100||40-70||25-40||10-25|
|Unit dose of Colistimethate
for injection , mg
|Frequency, times/day||4 to 2||2||2 or 1||every 36 hr|
|Total daily dose, mg||300||150-230||133-150||100|
|Approximate daily dose, mg/kg/day||5||2.5-3.8||2.5||1.5|
|Creatinine Clearance (mL/min)||≥80||50 -79||30 -49||10 -29|
|Summary:||2.5 - 5 mg/kg/day in 2 to 4 divided doses.||2.5 - 3.8 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses.||2.5 mg/kg/day in 1 to 2 divided doses.||~1.5 mg/kg q36 hours|
1. Direct Intermittent Administration - Slowly inject one-half of the total daily dose over a period of 3 to 5 minutes every 12 hours.
2. Continuous Infusion - Slowly inject one-half of the total daily dose over 3 to 5 minutes. Add the remaining half of the total daily dose of colistimethate for injection to one of the following:
5% dextrose in 0.9% NaCl
5% dextrose in water
5% dextrose in 0.45% NaCl
5% dextrose in 0.225% NaCl
Lactated Ringer's solution
10% invert sugar solution
There are not sufficient data to recommend usage of colistimethate for injection with other drugs or other than the above listed infusion solutions.
Administer the second half of the total daily dose by slow intravenous infusion, starting 1 to 2 hours after the initial dose, over the next 22 to 23 hours. In the presence of impaired renal function, reduce the infusion rate depending on the degree of renal impairment.
The choice of intravenous solution and the volume to be employed are dictated by the requirements of fluid and electrolyte management.
Any infusion solution containing colistimethate sodium should be freshly prepared and used for no longer than 24 hours.
Colistimethate for injection is supplied in vials containing colistimethate sodium (equivalent to 150 mg colistin base per vial). Colistimethate sodium appears as a white to slightly yellow lyophilized cake and is available as one vial per carton.
Store between 20° - 25°C (68° - 77°F)[See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Store reconstituted solution in refrigerator 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F) or between 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F), and use within 7 days.
CAUTION: WHEN THIS DRUG IS GIVEN INTRAMUSCULARLY AND/OR INTRATHECALLY, IT SHOULD BE GIVEN ONLY TO HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS, SO AS TO PROVIDE CONSTANT SUPERVISION BY A PHYSICIAN.
RENAL FUNCTION SHOULD BE CAREFULLY DETERMINED AND PATIENTS WITH RENAL DAMAGE AND NITROGEN RETENTION SHOULD HAVE REDUCED DOSAGE. PATIENTS WITH NEPHROTOXICITY DUE TO POLYMYXIN B SULFATE USUALLY SHOW ALBUMINURIA, CELLULAR CASTS, AND AZOTEMIA. DIMINISHING URINE OUTPUT AND A RISING BUN ARE INDICATIONS FOR DISCONTINUING THERAPY WITH THIS DRUG.
NEUROTOXIC REACTIONS MAY BE MANIFESTED BY IRRITABILITY, WEAKNESS, DROWSINESS, ATAXIA, PERIORAL PARESTHESIA, NUMBNESS OF THE EXTREMITIES, AND BLURRING OF VISION. THESE ARE USUALLY ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH SERUM LEVELS FOUND IN PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED RENAL FUNCTION AND/OR NEPHROTOXICITY.
THE CONCURRENT OR SEQUENTIAL USE OF OTHER NEUROTOXIC AND/OR NEPHROTOXIC DRUGS WITH POLYMYXIN B SULFATE, PARTICULARLY BACITRACIN, STREPTOMYCIN, NEOMYCIN, KANAMYCIN, GENTAMICIN, TOBRAMYCIN, AMIKACIN, CEPHALORIDINE, PAROMOMYCIN, VIOMYCIN, AND COLISTIN SHOULD BE AVOIDED.
THE NEUROTOXICITY OF POLYMYXIN B SULFATE CAN RESULT IN RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS FROM NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKADE, ESPECIALLY WHEN THE DRUG IS GIVEN SOON AFTER ANESTHESIA AND/OR MUSCLE RELAXANTS.
USAGE IN PREGNANCY: THE SAFETY OF THIS DRUG IN HUMAN PREGNANCY HAS NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED.
Polymyxin B for Injection, USP is one of a group of basic polypeptide antibiotics derived from B polymyxa (B aerosporous).
Aqueous solutions of polymyxin B sulfate may be stored up to 12 months without significant loss of potency if kept under refrigeration. In the interest of safety, solutions for parenteral use should be stored under refrigeration and any unused portion should be discarded after 72 hours. Polymyxin B sulfate should not be stored in alkaline solutions since they are less stable.
Polymyxin B sulfate has a bactericidal action against almost all gram-negative bacilli except the Proteus group. Polymyxins increase the permeability of bacterial cell wall membranes. All gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and the gram-negative cocci, N gonorrhoeae and N meningitidis, are resistant.
Susceptibility plate testing: If the Kirby-Bauer method of disc susceptibility testing is used, a 300-unit polymyxin B disc should give a zone of over 11 mm when tested against a polymyxin B susceptible bacterial strain.
Polymyxin B sulfate is not absorbed from the normal alimentary tract. Since the drug loses 50 percent of its activity in the presence of serum, active blood levels are low. Repeated injections may give a cumulative effect. Levels tend to be higher in infants and children. The drug is excreted slowly by the kidneys. Tissue diffusion is poor and the drug does not pass the blood brain barrier into the cerebrospinal fluid. In therapeutic dosage, polymyxin B sulfate causes some nephrotoxicity with tubule damage to a slight degree.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of polymyxin B and other antibacterial drugs, polymyxin B should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Acute Infections Caused by Susceptible Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Polymyxin B sulfate is a drug of choice in the treatment of infections of the urinary tract, meninges, and bloodstream caused by susceptible strains of P aeruginosa. It may also be used topically and subconjunctivally in the treatment of infections of the eye caused by susceptible strains of P aeruginosa.
It may be indicated in serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the following organisms, when less potentially toxic drugs are ineffective or contraindicated:
H influenzae, specifically meningeal infections.
Escherichia coli, specifically urinary tract infections.
Aerobacter aerogenes, specifically bacteremia.
Klebsiella pneumoniae, specifically bacteremia.
NOTE: IN MENINGEAL INFECTIONS, POLYMYXIN B SULFATE SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED ONLY BY THE INTRATHECAL ROUTE.
This drug is contraindicated in persons with a prior history of hypersensitivity reactions to polymyxins.
See “WARNING” box.
Prescribing polymyxin B in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug resistant bacteria.
Baseline renal function should be done prior to therapy, with frequent monitoring of renal function and blood levels of the drug during parenteral therapy.
Avoid concurrent use of a curariform muscle relaxant and other neurotoxic drugs (ether, tubocurarine, succinylcholine, gallamine, decamethonium and sodium citrate) which may precipitate respiratory depression. If signs of respiratory paralysis appear, respiration should be assisted as required, and the drug discontinued.
As with other antibiotics, use of this drug may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi.
If superinfection occurs, appropriate therapy should be instituted.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Dissolve 500,000 polymyxin B units in 300 to 500 mL solutions for parenteral dextrose injection 5% for continuous drip.
Adults and children: 15,000 to 25,000 units/kg body weight/day in individuals with normal kidney function. This amount should be reduced from 15,000 units/kg downward for individuals with kidney impairment. Infusions may be given every 12 hours; however, the total daily dose must not exceed 25,000 units/kg/day.
Infants: Infants with normal kidney function may receive up to 40,000 units/kg/day without adverse effects.
Not recommended routinely because of severe pain at injection sites, particularly in infants and children. Dissolve 500,000 polymyxin B units in 2 mL sterile water for injection or sodium chloride injection or procaine hydrochloride injection 1%.
Adults and children: 25,000 to 30,000 units/kg/day. This should be reduced in the presence of renal impairment. The dosage may be divided and given at either 4 or 6 hour intervals.
Infants: Infants with normal kidney function may receive up to 40,000 units/kg/day without adverse effects.
Note: Doses as high as 45,000 units/kg/day have been used in limited clinical studies in treating prematures and newborn infants for sepsis caused by P aeruginosa.
A treatment of choice for P aeruginosa meningitis. Dissolve 500,000 polymyxin B units in 10 mL sodium chloride injection USP for 50,000 units per mL dosage unit.
Adults and children over 2 years of age: Dosage is 50,000 units once daily intrathecally for 3 to 4 days, then 50,000 units once every other day for at least 2 weeks after cultures of the cerebrospinal fluid are negative and sugar content has returned to normal.
Children under 2 years of age: 20,000 units once daily, intrathecally for 3 to 4 days or 25,000 units once every other day. Continue with a dose of 25,000 units once every other day for at least 2 weeks after cultures of the cerebrospinal fluid are negative and sugar content has returned to normal.
IN THE INTEREST OF SAFETY, SOLUTIONS OF PARENTERAL USE SHOULD BE STORED UNDER REFRIGERATION, AND ANY UNUSED PORTIONS SHOULD BE DISCARDED AFTER 72 HOURS.
Ophthalmic: Dissolve 500,000 polymyxin B units in 20 to 50 mL sterile water for injection or sodium chloride injection USP for a 10,000 to 25,000 units per mL concentration.
For the treatment of P aeruginosa infections of the eye, a concentration of 0.1 percent to 0.25 percent (10,000 units to 25,000 units per mL) is administered 1 to 3 drops every hour, increasing the intervals as response indicates.
Subconjunctival injection of up to 100,000 units/day may be used for the treatment of P aeruginosa infections of the cornea and conjunctiva.
Note: Avoid total systemic and ophthalmic instillation over 25,000 units/kg/day.
Topical irrigation or topical solution: 500,000 units/liter of normal saline. Topical irrigation should not exceed 2 million units/day in adults.
CrCL 20-50 mL/minute: Administer 75% to 100% of normal daily dose given in divided doses every 12 hours.
CrCL 5-20 mL/minute: Administer 50% of normal daily dose given in divided doses every 12 hours.
CrCL <5 mL/minute: Administer 15% of normal daily dose given in divided doses every 12 hours.
Polymyxin B for Injection, 500,000 polymyxin B units per vial is supplied in rubber-stoppered glass vial with flip off cap, carton of 10, NDC55390-139-10.
Before reconstitution: Store at controlled room temperature 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).
Protect from light. Retain in carton until time of use.
After reconstitution: Product must be stored under refrigeration, between 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F) and any unused portion should be discarded after 72 hours.
SOURCE: Package insert data:
National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, DailyMed Database.
Provides access to the latest drug monographs submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Please review the latest applicable package insert for additional information and possible updates. A local search option of this data can be found here.