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Drug:   Carboplatin - Paraplatin-AQ®

The authors make no claims of the accuracy of the information contained herein; and these suggested doses are not a substitute for clinical judgment. Neither GlobalRPh Inc. nor any other party involved in the preparation of this program shall be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting in whole or part from any user's use of or reliance upon this material.  PLEASE READ THE DISCLAIMER CAREFULLY BEFORE ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE. BY ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE, YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS SET FORTH IN THE DISCLAIMER.

Usual Diluents

D5W,    NS

Dilution Data

DILUTION SUMMARY

[Amount of drug] [Infusion volume] [Infusion rate]

[Prescribed dose ]  [50-250 mL]  [ 15 - 60 minutes]*
  
*Final concentration: [RANGE:  0.5 to 2 mg/ml 2].  Infuse over 15 minutes or longer depending on protocol - possibly up to 24 hours.  Depending on prescribed dose - final volume range: 50 - 250 ml.

Update May 2013:  Concentration range: 0.5 - 4 mg/ml was tested over a 21 day period at 4 and 25 degrees C in PVC bags protected from light.  All solutions were stable for 7 days at room temperature and for 21 days at 4 degrees C with less than 1% loss. 3,4

Dilution:
Final concentration: [RANGE:  0.5 to 2 mg/ml].  Infuse over 15 minutes or longer depending on protocol.
   Depending on prescribed dose: 50 - 250 ml (usual final volume range).

Carboplatin Injection 10 mg/mL is supplied as a Ready To Use (RTU) sterile solution in 5 mL, 15 mL, 45 mL or 60 mL vials. Total content of carboplatin per vial is described in following table:1
Vial Strength Diluent Volume
50 mg 5 mL
150 mg 15 mL
450 mg 45 mL
600 mg 60 mL

Further dilution:
Carboplatin Injection can be further diluted to concentrations as low as 0.5 mg/mL with 5% Dextrose in Water (D5W) or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP.  [RANGE:  0.5 to 2 mg/ml]1
Update May 2013:  Concentration range: 0.5 - 4 mg/ml was tested over a 21 day period at 4 and 25 degrees C in PVC bags protected from light.  All solutions were stable for 7 days at room temperature and for 21 days at 4 degrees C with less than 1% loss. 3,4

When further diluted, Carboplatin Injection solutions are stable for 8 hours at room temperature (25°C). Since no antibacterial preservative is contained in the formulation, it is recommended that Carboplatin Injection solutions be discarded 8 hours after dilution.

Other2:  [Stability]:
Powder for reconstitution: Reconstituted to a final concentration of 10 mg/mL is stable for 5 days at room temperature (25°C).
Solution for injection: Multidose vials are stable for up to 14 days after opening when stored at room temperature.

Infusion rates2: Infuse over 15 minutes to 24 hours.  Carboplatin Injection is usually administered by an infusion lasting 15 minutes or longer. No pre- or post-treatment hydration or forced diuresis is required 1.

Stability / Miscellaneous

WARNING INDICATIONS CONTRAINDICATIONS
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION PREPARATION / DILUTION HOW SUPPLIED
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WARNING
Carboplatin Injection should be administered under the supervision of a qualified physician experienced in the use of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Appropriate management of therapy and complications is possible only when adequate treatment facilities are readily available.

Bone marrow suppression is dose related and may be severe, resulting in infection and/or bleeding. Anemia may be cumulative and may require transfusion support. Vomiting is another frequent drug-related side effect.

Anaphylactic-like reactions to Carboplatin Injection have been reported and may occur within minutes of Carboplatin Injection administration. Epinephrine, corticosteroids, and antihistamines have been employed to alleviate symptoms.


CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
Carboplatin, like cisplatin, produces predominantly interstrand DNA cross-links rather than DNA -protein cross-links. This effect is apparently cell-cycle nonspecific. The aquation of carboplatin, which is thought to produce the active species, occurs at a slower rate than in the case of cisplatin. Despite this difference, it appears that both carboplatin and cisplatin induce equal numbers of drug-DNA cross-links, causing equivalent lesions and biological effects. The differences in potencies for carboplatin and cisplatin appear to be directly related to the difference in aquation rates.

In patients with creatinine clearances of about 60 mL/min or greater, plasma levels of intact carboplatin decay in a biphasic manner after a 30-minute intravenous infusion of 300 to 500 mg/m2 of Carboplatin Injection. The initial plasma half-life (alpha) was found to be 1.1 to 2 hours (N=6), and the postdistribution plasma half-life (beta) was found to be 2.6 to 5.9 hours (N=6). The total body clearance, apparent volume of distribution and mean residence time for carboplatin are 4.4 L/hour, 16 L and 3.5 hours, respectively. The Cmax values and areas under the plasma concentration vs. time curves from 0 to infinity (AUC inf) increase linearly with dose, although the increase was slightly more than dose proportional. Carboplatin, therefore, exhibits linear pharmacokinetics over the dosing range studied (300 - 500 mg/m2).

Carboplatin is not bound to plasma proteins. No significant quantities of protein-free, ultrafilterable platinum-containing species other than carboplatin are present in plasma. However, platinum from carboplatin becomes irreversibly bound to plasma proteins and is slowly eliminated with a minimum halflife of 5 days.

The major route of elimination of carboplatin is renal excretion. Patients with creatinine clearances of approximately 60 mL/min or greater excrete 65% of the dose in the urine within 12 hours and 71% of the dose within 24 hours. All of the platinum in the 24-hour urine is present as carboplatin. Only 3% to 5% of the administered platinum is excreted in the urine between 24 and 96 hours. There are insufficient data to determine whether biliary excretion occurs.

In patients with creatinine clearances below 60 mL/min the total body and renal clearances of carboplatin decrease as the creatinine clearance decreases. Carboplatin Injection dosages should therefore be reduced in these patients (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

The primary determinant of Carboplatin Injection clearance is glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and this parameter of renal function is often decreased in elderly patients. Dosing formulas incorporating estimates of GFR (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION) to provide predictable Carboplatin Injection plasma AUCs should be used in elderly patients to minimize the risk of toxicity


INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Initial Treatment of Advanced Ovarian Carcinoma:
Carboplatin Injection is indicated for the initial treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma in established combination with other approved chemotherapeutic agents. One established combination regimen consists of Carboplatin Injection and cyclophosphamide. Two randomized controlled studies conducted by the NCIC and SWOG with carboplatin vs. cisplatin, both in combination with cyclophosphamide, have demonstrated equivalent overall survival between the two groups (see PACKAGE INSERT FOR CLINICAL STUDIES).

There is limited statistical power to demonstrate equivalence in overall pathologic complete response rates and long-term survival (geq3 years) because of the small number of patients with these outcomes: the small number of patients with residual tumor <2 cm after initial surgery also limits the statistical power to demonstrate equivalence in this subgroup.

Secondary Treatment of Advanced Ovarian Carcinoma:
Carboplatin Injection is indicated for the palliative treatment of patients with ovarian carcinoma recurrent after prior chemotherapy, including patients who have been previously treated with cisplatin.

Within the group of patients previously treated with cisplatin, those who have developed progressive disease while receiving cisplatin therapy may have a decreased response rate.


CONTRAINDICATIONS
Carboplatin Injection is contraindicated in patients with a history of severe allergic reactions to cisplatin or other platinum-containing compounds.

Carboplatin Injection should not be employed in patients with severe bone marrow depression or significant bleeding

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
NOTE: Aluminum reacts with carboplatin causing precipitate formation and loss of potency, therefore, needles or intravenous sets containing aluminum parts that may come in contact with the drug must not be used for the preparation or administration of Carboplatin Injection.

Single Agent Therapy:
Carboplatin Injection, as a single agent, has been shown to be effective in patients with recurrent ovarian carcinoma at a dosage of 360 mg/m2 IV on day 1 every 4 weeks (alternatively see Formula Dosing). In general, however, single intermittent courses of Carboplatin Injection should not be repeated until the neutrophil count is at least 2000 and the platelet count is at least 100,000.

Combination Therapy with Cyclophosphamide:
In the chemotherapy of advanced ovarian cancer, an effective combination for previously untreated patients consists of:

Carboplatin Injection - 300 mg/m2 IV on day 1 every four weeks for six cycles (alternatively see Formula Dosing).

Cyclophosphamide - 600 mg/m2 IV on day 1 every four weeks for six cycles. For directions regarding the use and administration of cyclophosphamide please refer to its package insert. (See PACKAGE INSERT FOR CLINICAL STUDIES.)

Intermittent courses of Carboplatin Injection in combination with cyclophosphamide should not be repeated until the neutrophil count is at least 2000 and the platelet count is at least 100,000.

Dose Adjustment Recommendations:
Pretreatment platelet count and performance status are important prognostic factors for severity of myelosuppression in previously treated patients.

The suggested dose adjustments for single agent or combination therapy shown in the table below are modified from controlled trials in previously treated and untreated patients with ovarian carcinoma. Blood counts were done weekly, and the recommendations are based on the lowest post-treatment platelet or neutrophil value.
Platelets Neutrophils Adjusted Dose* (From Prior Course)
*Percentages apply to Carboplatin Injection as a single agent or to both Carboplatin Injection and cyclophosphamide in combination. In the controlled studies, dosages were also adjusted at a lower level (50% to 60%) for severe myelosuppression. Escalations above 125% were not recommended for these studies.
>100,000 >2000 125%
50-100,000 500-2000 No Adjustment
<50,000 <500 75%

Carboplatin Injection is usually administered by an infusion lasting 15 minutes or longer. No pre- or post-treatment hydration or forced diuresis is required.

Patients with Impaired Kidney Function:
Patients with creatinine clearance values below 60 mL/min are at increased risk of severe bone marrow suppression. In renally-impaired patients who received single-agent Carboplatin Injection therapy, the incidence of severe leukopenia, neutropenia, or thrombocytopenia has been about 25% when the dosage modifications in the table below have been used.
Baseline Creatinine Clearance Recommended Dose on Day 1
41 - 59 mL/min 250 mg/m2
16 - 40 mL/min 200 mg/m2

The data available for patients with severely impaired kidney function (creatinine clearance below 15 mL/min) are too limited to permit a recommendation for treatment.

These dosing recommendations apply to the initial course of treatment. Subsequent dosages should be adjusted according to the patient’s tolerance based on the degree of bone marrow suppression.


Formula Dosing:
Another approach for determining the initial dose of Carboplatin Injection is the use of mathematical formulae, which are based on a patient’s preexisting renal function or renal function and desired platelet nadir. Renal excretion is the major route of elimination for carboplatin. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY.) The use of dosing formulae, as compared to empirical dose calculation based on body surface area, allows compensation for patient variations in pretreatment renal function that might otherwise result in either underdosing (in patients with above average renal function) or overdosing (in patients with impaired renal function).

A simple formula for calculating dosage, based upon a patient’s glomerular filtration rate (GFR in mL/min) and Carboplatin Injection target area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC in mg/mL•min), has been proposed by Calvert. In these studies, GFR was measured by 51Cr-EDTA clearance.

CALVERT FORMULA FOR CARBOPLATIN DOSING
          Total Dose (mg) = (target AUC) x (GFR + 25)

Note: With the Calvert formula, the total dose of Carboplatin Injection is calculated in mg, not mg/m2.

The target AUC of 4-6 mg/mL•min using single agent Carboplatin Injection appears to provide the most appropriate dose range in previously treated patients. This study also showed a trend between the AUC of single agent Carboplatin Injection administered to previously treated patients and the likelihood of developing toxicity.

% Actual Toxicity in Previously Treated Patients
  Gr 3 or Gr 4 Gr 3 or Gr 4
AUC (mg/mL•min) Thrombocytopenia Leukopenia
4 to 5 16% 13%
6 to 7 33 34%


Geriatric Dosing:
Because renal function is often decreased in elderly patients, formula dosing of Carboplatin Injection based on estimates of GFR should be used in elderly patients to provide predictable plasma Carboplatin Injection AUCs and thereby minimize the risk of toxicity.




PREPARATION OF INTRAVENOUS SOLUTIONS
Carboplatin Injection 10 mg/mL is supplied as a Ready To Use (RTU) sterile solution in 5 mL, 15 mL, 45 mL or 60 mL vials. Total content of carboplatin per vial is described in following table:
Vial Strength Diluent Volume
50 mg 5 mL
150 mg 15 mL
450 mg 45 mL
600 mg 60 mL

Carboplatin Injection can be further diluted to concentrations as low as 0.5 mg/mL with 5% Dextrose in Water (D5W) or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP.

When further diluted, Carboplatin Injection solutions are stable for 8 hours at room temperature (25°C). Since no antibacterial preservative is contained in the formulation, it is recommended that Carboplatin Injection solutions be discarded 8 hours after dilution.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration.


HOW SUPPLIED
Carboplatin Injection 10 mg/mL sterile solution is available in the following presentations:

NDC 61703-339-18
50 mg/5 mL vials, individually cartoned. (Blue flip-off seals)

NDC 61703-339-22
150 mg/15 mL vials, individually cartoned. (Blue flip-off seals)

NDC 61703-339-50
450 mg/45 mL vials, individually cartoned. (Blue flip-off seals)

NDC 61703-339-56
600 mg/60 mL vials, individually cartoned. (Blue flip-off seals)


STORAGE
Unopened vials of Carboplatin Injection are stable for the life indicated on the package when stored at 25°C (77°F) [excursions permitted to 15°- 30°C (59°- 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature] and protected from light.


Carboplatin injection multidose vials maintain microbial, chemical, and physical stability for up to 15 days at 25°C following multiple needle entries.


HANDLING AND DISPOSAL
Procedures for proper handling and disposal of anti-cancer drugs should be considered. Several guidelines on this subject have been published1-7. There is no general agreement that all of the procedures recommended in the guidelines are necessary or appropriate.

Reference(s)

PRIMARY:
1)  [PACKAGE INSERT DATA] :  CARBOPLATIN injection, solution.  Hospira, Inc.  Lake Forest, IL 60045.  Revision August 2007.

2) Solimando, Dominic A. Drug Information Handbook for Oncology: A Complete Guide to Combination Chemotherapy Regimens, 8th ed. Hudson, OH: Lexi-Comp, Inc.; 2010.

3) Allwood M, Stanley A, Wright P. The Cytotoxics Handbook, 4th edition, 2002 (pp 278-279).

4) Amador FD, et al. Stability of carboplatin in polyvinyl chloride bags. Am J Health Syst Pharm 55(6):602, 604 (1998), PMID 9544339.


OTHER REFERENCES:
  1. Recommendations for the Safe Handling of Parenteral Antineoplastic Drugs. NIH Publication No. 83-2621. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.
  2. AMA Council Report. Guidelines for Handling Parenteral Antineoplastics. JAMA 1985; 253(11):1590-1592.
  3. National Study Commission on Cytotoxic Exposure - Recommendations for Handling Cytotoxic Agents. Available from Louis P. Jeffrey, Sc.D., Chairman, National Study Commission on Cytotoxic Exposure, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, 179 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.
  4. Clinical Oncological Society of Australia. Guidelines and Recommendations for Safe Handling of Antineoplastic Agents. Med J Australia 1983; 1:426-428.
  5. Jones RB, et al: Safe Handling of Chemotherapeutic Agents: A Report From the Mount Sinai Medical Center. CA-A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 1983; (Sept/Oct) 258-263.
  6. American Society of Hospital Pharmacists Technical Assistance Bulletin on Handling Cytotoxic and Hazardous Drugs. Am J Hosp Pharm 1990; 47:1033-1049.
  7. Controlling Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Drugs. (OSHA WORK-PRACTICE GUIDELINES). Am J Health-Syst Pharm 1995; 52:1669-1685

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The authors make no claims of the accuracy of the information contained herein; and these suggested doses and/or guidelines are not a substitute for clinical judgment. Neither GlobalRPh Inc. nor any other party involved in the preparation of this document shall be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting in whole or part from any user's use of or reliance upon this material.    PLEASE READ THE DISCLAIMER CAREFULLY BEFORE ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE. BY ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE, YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS SET FORTH IN THE DISCLAIMER.
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