Propranolol (Inderal ®)
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Standard Dilutions [Amount of drug] [Infusion volume] [Infusion rate]
[1 mg] [50 ml] [10-15 min]
[15 mg] [250ml] [Titrate]
Stability / Miscellaneous
EXP: 1 DAY (RT)
[Supplied: 1 mg/ml amp]
Dosing: Life-threatening arrhythmia: usually 1- 3 mg (maximum rate: 1 mg/min)-may dilute in D5W-50ml. After 3 mg infused, may repeat in 2 minutes. Subsequent doses no sooner than 4 hours.
May start IV infusion: usual rate: 2 to 3 mg/hr. Titrate to HR/BP.
Oral to IV conversion: An equivalent IV dose cannot be predicted with any precision because of the highly variable metabolic and bioavailability characteristics of oral propranolol, as well as significant variability in patient response. Therefore, careful titration of an IV dose is necessary (start continuous infusion: 2 to 3 mg/hr-titrate to HR/BP).
Average bioavailability of oral propranolol: (30-40%) ( range: 16-60%).
Propranolol is well absorbed, however, there is an extensive first pass metabolism. Variations in metabolism result from differences in hepatic blood flow, intrinsic clearance, genetic makeup, etc.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Intravenous administration is usually reserved for life-threatening arrhythmias or those occurring under anesthesia.
Intravenous propranolol is indicated for the short-term treatment of supraventricular tachycardia, including Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and thyrotoxicosis, to decrease ventricular rate. Use in patients with atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation should be reserved for arrythmias unresponsive to standard therapy or when more prolonged control is required. Reversion to normal sinus rhythm has occasionally been observed, predominantly in patients with sinus or atrial tachycardia.
With the exception of those induced by catecholamines or digitalis, propranolol is not the drug of first choice. In critical situations when cardioversion techniques or other drugs are not indicated or are not effective, propranolol may be considered. If, after consideration of the risks involved, propranolol is used, it should be given intravenously in low dosage and very slowly, as the failing heart requires some sympathetic drive for maintenance of myocardial tone. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Some patients may respond with complete reversion to normal sinus rhythm, but reduction in ventricular rate is more likely. Ventricular arrhythmias do not respond to propranolol as predictably as do the supraventricular arrhythmias. Intravenous propranolol is indicated for the treatment of persistent premature ventricular extrasystoles that impair the well-being of the patient and do not respond to conventional measures.
Tachyarrhythmias of digitalis intoxication
Intravenous propranolol is indicated to control ventricular rate in life-threatening digitalis-induced arrhythmias. Severe bradycardia may occur. (See OVERDOSAGE).
Resistant tachyarrhythmias due to excessive catecholamine action during anesthesia
Intravenous propranolol is indicated to abolish tachyarrhythmias due to excessive catecholamine action during anesthesia when other measures fail. These arrhythmias may arise because of release of endogenous catecholamines or administration of catecholamines. All general inhalation anesthetics produce some degree of myocardial depression. Therefore, when propranolol is used to treat arrhythmias during anesthesia, it should be used with extreme caution, usually with constant monitoring of the ECG and central venous pressure. (See WARNINGS).
Propranolol is contraindicated in 1) cardiogenic shock; 2) sinus bradycardia and greater than first-degree block; 3) bronchial asthma; and 4) in patients with known hypersensitivity to propranolol hydrochloride.
Sympathetic stimulation may be a vital component supporting circulatory function in patients with congestive heart failure, and its inhibition by beta blockade may precipitate more severe failure. Although beta-blockers should be avoided in overt congestive heart failure, some have been shown to be highly beneficial when used with close follow-up in patients with a history of failure who are well compensated and are receiving additional therapies, including diuretics as needed. Beta-adrenergic blocking agents do not abolish the inotropic action of digitalis on heart muscle.
Nonallergic Bronchospasm (e.g., Chronic Bronchitis, Emphysema)
In general, patients with bronchospastic lung disease should not receive beta blockers. Propranolol should be administered with caution in this setting since it may block bronchodilation produced by endogenous and exogenous catecholamine stimulation of beta-receptors.
The necessity or desirability of withdrawal of beta-blocking therapy prior to major surgery is controversial. It should be noted, however, that the impaired ability of the heart to respond to reflex adrenergic stimuli in propranolol-treated patients might augment the risks of general anesthesia and surgical procedures.
Propranolol is a competitive inhibitor of beta-receptor agonists, and its effects can be reversed by administration of such agents, e.g., dobutamine or isoproterenol. However, such patients may be subject to protracted severe hypotension.
Diabetes and Hypoglycemia
Beta-adrenergic blockade may prevent the appearance of certain premonitory signs and symptoms (pulse rate and pressure changes) of acute hypoglycemia, especially in labile insulin-dependent diabetics. In these patients, it may be more difficult to adjust the dosage of insulin.
Propranolol therapy, particularly in infants and children, diabetic or not, has been associated with hypoglycemia especially during fasting, as in preparation for surgery. Hypoglycemia has been reported after prolonged physical exertion and in patients with renal insufficiency.
Beta-adrenergic blockade may mask certain clinical signs of hyperthyroidism. Therefore, abrupt withdrawal of propranolol may be followed by an exacerbation of symptoms of hyperthyroidism, including thyroid storm. Propranolol may change thyroid-function tests, increasing T4 and reverse T3, and decreasing T3.
Beta-adrenergic blockade in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and tachycardia has been associated with severe bradycardia requiring treatment with a pacemaker. In one case this resulted after an initial 5 mg dose of intravenous propranolol.
Propranolol is not significantly dialyzable. In the event of overdose or exaggerated response, the following measures should be employed:
Hypotension and bradycardia have been reported following propranolol overdose and should be treated appropriately. Glucagon can exert potent inotropic and chronotropic effects and may be particularly useful for the treatment of hypotension or depressed myocardial function after a propranolol overdose. Glucagon should be administered as 50 to 150 mcg/kg intravenously followed by continuous drip of 1 to 5 mg/hour for positive chronotropic effect. Isoproterenol, dopamine, or phosphodiesterase inhibitors may also be useful. Epinephrine, however, may provoke uncontrolled hypertension. Bradycardia can be treated with atropine or isoproterenol. Serious bradycardia may require temporary cardiac pacing.
The electrocardiogram, pulse, blood pressure, neurobehavioral status and intake and output balance must be monitored. Isoproterenol and aminophylline may be useful for bronchospasm.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
The usual dose is 1 to 3 mg administered under careful monitoring, such as electrocardiography and central venous pressure. The rate of administration should not exceed 1 mg (1 mL) per minute to diminish the possibility of lowering blood pressure and causing cardiac standstill. Sufficient time should be allowed for the drug to reach the site of action even when a slow circulation is present. If necessary, a second dose may be given after two minutes. Thereafter, additional drug should not be given in less than four hours. Additional propranolol hydrochloride should not be given when the desired alteration in rate or rhythm is achieved.
Transfer to oral therapy as soon as possible.
Propranolol hydrochloride injection, USP contains 1 mg propranolol hydrochloride, anhydrous citric acid to adjust pH, and water for injection; and is supplied as follows:
NDC 0781-3777-95 – 1 mL fill in 2 mL vials; boxes of 10
Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) (see USP Controlled Room Temperature).
Protect from freezing and excessive heat.
Manufactured in Canada by Sandoz Canada Inc. for
Sandoz Inc., Princeton, NJ 08540
Source: [package insert]
|The authors make no claims of the accuracy of the information contained herein; and these suggested doses are not a substitute for clinical judgment. Neither GlobalRPh Inc. nor any other party involved in the preparation of this program shall be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting in whole or part from any user's use of or reliance upon this material. PLEASE READ THE DISCLAIMER CAREFULLY BEFORE ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE. BY ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE, YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS SET FORTH IN THE DISCLAIMER.|