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The authors make no claims of the accuracy of the information contained herein; and these suggested doses and/or guidelines are not a substitute for clinical judgment. Neither GlobalRPh Inc. nor any other party involved in the preparation of this document shall be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting in whole or part from any user's use of or reliance upon this material.    PLEASE READ THE DISCLAIMER CAREFULLY BEFORE ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE. BY ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE, YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS SET FORTH IN THE DISCLAIMER.

Drug:   Paclitaxel (Protein Bound) - Abraxane®

Usual Diluents

NS

Dilution Data

DILUTION SUMMARY

[Amount of drug] [Infusion volume] [Infusion rate]
-Follow the reconstitution steps below. No further dilution is required.
-Infusion rate
: administer intravenously over 30 minutes.
-Use of specialized DEHP-free solution containers is NOT necessary.
-Do NOT filter.


Preparation for Intravenous Administration
---------------------------------------------------------------------
ABRAXANE is supplied as a sterile lyophilized powder for reconstitution before use. AVOID ERRORS, READ ENTIRE PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS PRIOR TO RECONSTITUTION.
  1. Aseptically, reconstitute each vial by injecting 20 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP.
  2. Slowly inject the 20 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, over a minimum of 1 minute, using the sterile syringe to direct the solution flow onto the INSIDE WALL OF THE VIAL.
    Figure
  3. DO NOT INJECT the 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, directly onto the lyophilized cake as this will result in foaming.
  4. Once the injection is complete, allow the vial to sit for a minimum of 5 minutes to ensure proper wetting of the lyophilized cake/powder.
  5. Gently swirl and/or invert the vial slowly for at least 2 minutes until complete dissolution of any cake/powder occurs. Avoid generation of foam.
  6. If foaming or clumping occurs, stand solution for at least 15 minutes until foam subsides.
Each mL of the reconstituted formulation will contain 5 mg/mL paclitaxel.

Calculate the exact total dosing volume of 5 mg/mL suspension required for the patient: Dosing volume (mL) = Total dose (mg)/5 (mg/mL)

The reconstituted suspension should be milky and homogenous without visible particulates. If particulates or settling are visible, the vial should be gently inverted again to ensure complete resuspension prior to use. Discard the reconstituted suspension if precipitates are observed. Discard any unused portion.

Inject the appropriate amount of reconstituted ABRAXANE® into an empty, sterile IV bag (plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers, PVC or non-PVC type IV bag). The use of specialized DEHP-free solution containers or administration sets is not necessary to prepare or administer ABRAXANE infusions. The use of an in-line filter is not recommended.
Infusion rate
: administer intravenously over 30 minutes.

Stability
Unopened vials of ABRAXANE are stable until the date indicated on the package when stored between 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F), in the original package. Neither freezing nor refrigeration adversely affects the stability of the product.

Stability of Reconstituted Suspension in the Vial
Reconstituted ABRAXANE should be used immediately, but may be refrigerated at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) for a maximum of 8 hours if necessary. If not used immediately, each vial of reconstituted suspension should be replaced in the original carton to protect it from bright light. Discard any unused portion.

Stability of Reconstituted Suspension in the Infusion Bag
The suspension for infusion when prepared as recommended in an infusion bag should be used immediately but may be stored at ambient temperature (approximately 25°C) and lighting conditions for up to 4 hours. Discard any unused portion.

Stability / Miscellaneous

WARNINGS CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY INDICATIONS
CONTRAINDICATIONS DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION RECONSTITUTION / DILUTION
  HOW SUPPLIED  
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WARNINGS
ABRAXANE for Injectable Suspension (paclitaxel protein-bound particles for injectable suspension) should be administered under the supervision of a physician experienced in the use of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Appropriate management of complications is possible only when adequate diagnostic and treatment facilities are readily available.

ABRAXANE therapy should not be administered to patients with metastatic breast cancer who have baseline neutrophil counts of less than 1,500 cells/mm3. In order to monitor the occurrence of bone marrow suppression, primarily neutropenia, which may be severe and result in infection, it is recommended that frequent peripheral blood cell counts be performed on all patients receiving ABRAXANE.

Note: An albumin form of paclitaxel may substantially affect a drug's functional properties relative to those of drug in solution. DO NOT SUBSTITUTE FOR OR WITH OTHER PACLITAXEL FORMULATIONS.


DESCRIPTION
ABRAXANE for Injectable Suspension (paclitaxel protein-bound particles for injectable suspension) is an albumin-bound form of paclitaxel with a mean particle size of approximately 130 nanometers. Paclitaxel exists in the particles in a non-crystalline, amorphous state. ABRAXANE is supplied as a white to yellow, sterile, lyophilized powder for reconstitution with 20 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP prior to intravenous infusion. Each single-use vial contains 100 mg of paclitaxel and approximately 900 mg of human albumin. Each milliliter (mL) of reconstituted suspension contains 5 mg paclitaxel. ABRAXANE is free of solvents.

The active agent in ABRAXANE® is paclitaxel, a natural product with antitumor activity. Paclitaxel is obtained from Taxus media. The chemical name for paclitaxel is 5beta,20-Epoxy-1,2alpha,4,7beta,10beta,13alpha-hexahydroxytax-11-en-9-one 4,10-diacetate 2-benzoate 13-ester with (2R,3S)-N-benzoyl-3-phenylisoserine.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action
ABRAXANE for Injectable Suspension (paclitaxel protein-bound particles for injectable suspension) is an antimicrotubule agent that promotes the assembly of microtubules from tubulin dimers and stabilizes microtubules by preventing depolymerization. This stability results in the inhibition of the normal dynamic reorganization of the microtubule network that is essential for vital interphase and mitotic cellular functions. Paclitaxel induces abnormal arrays or "bundles" of microtubules throughout the cell cycle and multiple asters of microtubules during mitosis.

INDICATION
ABRAXANE® for Injectable Suspension (paclitaxel protein-bound particles for injectable suspension) is indicated for the treatment of breast cancer after failure of combination chemotherapy for metastatic disease or relapse within 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy. Prior therapy should have included an anthracycline unless clinically contraindicated.


CONTRAINDICATIONS
ABRAXANE should not be used in patients who have baseline neutrophil counts of < 1,500 cells/mm3.


WARNINGS
Bone marrow suppression (primarily neutropenia) is dose dependent and a dose limiting toxicity. ABRAXANE should not be administered to patients with baseline neutrophil counts of < 1,500 cells/mm3. Frequent monitoring of blood counts should be instituted during ABRAXANE treatment. Patients should not be retreated with subsequent cycles of ABRAXANE until neutrophils recover to a level >1,500 cells/mm3 and platelets recover to a level >100,000 cells/mm3.

The use of ABRAXANE has not been studied in patients with renal dysfunction. In the randomized controlled trial, patients were excluded for baseline serum bilirubin >1.5 mg/dL or baseline serum creatinine >2 mg/dL.


Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category D
ABRAXANE can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Administration of paclitaxel protein-bound particles to rats on gestation days 7 to 17 at doses of 6 mg/m2 (approximately 2% of the daily maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis) caused embryo- and fetotoxicity, as indicated by intrauterine mortality, increased resorptions (up to 5-fold), reduced numbers of litters and live fetuses, reduction in fetal body weight and increase in fetal anomalies. Fetal anomalies included soft tissue and skeletal malformations, such as eye bulge, folded retina, microphthalmia, and dilation of brain ventricles. A lower incidence of soft tissue and skeletal malformations were also exhibited at 3 mg/m2 (approximately 1% of the daily maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis).

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women using ABRAXANE®. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while receiving this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant while receiving treatment with ABRAXANE.


Use in Males
Men should be advised to not father a child while receiving treatment with ABRAXANE (see PRECAUTIONS: Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility for discussion of effects of ABRAXANE exposure on male fertility and embryonic viability).


Albumin (Human)
ABRAXANE contains albumin (human), a derivative of human blood. Based on effective donor screening and product manufacturing processes, it carries an extremely remote risk for transmission of viral diseases. A theoretical risk for transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) also is considered extremely remote. No cases of transmission of viral diseases or CJD have ever been identified for albumin.


DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
After failure of combination chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer or relapse within 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy, the recommended regimen for ABRAXANE for Injectable Suspension (paclitaxel protein-bound particles for injectable suspension) is 260 mg/m2 administered intravenously over 30 minutes every 3 weeks.


Hepatic Impairment
No dose adjustment is necessary for patients with mild hepatic impairment. Patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment treated with ABRAXANE may be at increased risk of toxicities known to paclitaxel. Patients should not receive ABRAXANE if AST > 10 × ULN or bilirubin > 5.0 x ULN. Recommendations for dosage adjustment for the first course of therapy are shown in Table 4. The dose of ABRAXANE can be increased up to 200 mg/m2 in patients with severe hepatic impairment in subsequent cycles based on individual tolerance. Patients should be monitored closely. (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY : Hepatic Impairment and PACKAGE INSERT FOR PRECAUTIONS: Hepatic Impairment)


Table 4: Recommendations for Starting Dose in Patients with Hepatic Impairment
SGOT (AST) Levels Bilirubin Levels ABRAXANE*
*
Dosage recommendations are for the first course of therapy. The need for further dose adjustments in subsequent courses should be based on individual tolerance.
A dose increase to 200 mg/m2 in subsequent courses should be considered based on individual tolerance.
Mild <10 × ULN AND >ULN to leq1.25 × ULN 260 mg/m2
Moderate <10 × ULN 1.26 to 2.0 × ULN 200 mg/m2
Severe <10 × ULN 2.01 to 5.0 × ULN 130 mg/m2
> 10 × ULN OR > 5.0 × ULN not eligible


Dose Reduction
Patients who experience severe neutropenia (neutrophil <500 cells/mm3 for a week or longer) or severe sensory neuropathy during ABRAXANE therapy should have dosage reduced to 220 mg/m2 for subsequent courses of ABRAXANE. For recurrence of severe neutropenia or severe sensory neuropathy, additional dose reduction should be made to 180 mg/m2. For grade 3 sensory neuropathy hold treatment until resolution to grade 1 or 2, followed by a dose reduction for all subsequent courses of ABRAXANE.


Preparation and Administration Precautions
ABRAXANE is a cytotoxic anticancer drug and, as with other potentially toxic paclitaxel compounds, caution should be exercised in handling ABRAXANE. The use of gloves is recommended. If ABRAXANE (lyophilized cake or reconstituted suspension) contacts the skin, wash the skin immediately and thoroughly with soap and water. Following topical exposure to paclitaxel, events may include tingling, burning and redness. If ABRAXANE® contacts mucous membranes, the membranes should be flushed thoroughly with water.

Given the possibility of extravasation, it is advisable to closely monitor the infusion site for possible infiltration during drug administration. Limiting the infusion of ABRAXANE to 30 minutes, as directed, reduces the likelihood of infusion-related reactions (see PACKAGE INSERT FOR PRECAUTIONS: Injection Site Reaction).

No premedication to prevent hypersensitivity reactions is required prior to administration of ABRAXANE.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
Preparation for Intravenous Administration
---------------------------------------------------------------------
ABRAXANE is supplied as a sterile lyophilized powder for reconstitution before use. AVOID ERRORS, READ ENTIRE PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS PRIOR TO RECONSTITUTION.

  1. Aseptically, reconstitute each vial by injecting 20 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP.
  2. Slowly inject the 20 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, over a minimum of 1 minute, using the sterile syringe to direct the solution flow onto the INSIDE WALL OF THE VIAL.
    Figure
  3. DO NOT INJECT the 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, directly onto the lyophilized cake as this will result in foaming.
  4. Once the injection is complete, allow the vial to sit for a minimum of 5 minutes to ensure proper wetting of the lyophilized cake/powder.
  5. Gently swirl and/or invert the vial slowly for at least 2 minutes until complete dissolution of any cake/powder occurs. Avoid generation of foam.
  6. If foaming or clumping occurs, stand solution for at least 15 minutes until foam subsides.
Each mL of the reconstituted formulation will contain 5 mg/mL paclitaxel.

Calculate the exact total dosing volume of 5 mg/mL suspension required for the patient: Dosing volume (mL) = Total dose (mg)/5 (mg/mL)

The reconstituted suspension should be milky and homogenous without visible particulates. If particulates or settling are visible, the vial should be gently inverted again to ensure complete resuspension prior to use. Discard the reconstituted suspension if precipitates are observed. Discard any unused portion.

Inject the appropriate amount of reconstituted ABRAXANE® into an empty, sterile IV bag (plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers, PVC or non-PVC type IV bag). The use of specialized DEHP-free solution containers or administration sets is not necessary to prepare or administer ABRAXANE infusions. The use of an in-line filter is not recommended.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.


Stability
Unopened vials of ABRAXANE are stable until the date indicated on the package when stored between 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F), in the original package. Neither freezing nor refrigeration adversely affects the stability of the product.

Stability of Reconstituted Suspension in the Vial
Reconstituted ABRAXANE should be used immediately, but may be refrigerated at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) for a maximum of 8 hours if necessary. If not used immediately, each vial of reconstituted suspension should be replaced in the original carton to protect it from bright light. Discard any unused portion.

Stability of Reconstituted Suspension in the Infusion Bag
The suspension for infusion prepared as recommended in an infusion bag should be used immediately, but may be stored at ambient temperature (approximately 25° C) and lighting conditions for up to 8 hours.


HOW SUPPLIED
Product No. 103450

NDC No. 68817-134-50 100 mg of paclitaxel in a single use vial, individually packaged in a carton.


Storage
Store the vials in original cartons at 20° C to 25° C (68° F to 77°F). Retain in the original package to protect from bright light.


Handling and Disposal
Procedures for proper handling and disposal of anticancer drugs should be considered. Several guidelines on this subject have been published.1-8 There is no general agreement that all of the procedures recommended in the guidelines are necessary or appropriate.

Reference(s)

PRIMARY:
1)  [PACKAGE INSERT DATA] : ABRAXANE (paclitaxel) injection, powder, lyophilized, for suspension. [Abraxis BioScience, LLC] Bridgewater, NJ 08807. Revised: March 2010.


Handling and Disposal:
  1. Recommendations for the Safe Handling of Parenteral Antineoplastic Drugs. Publication No. 83-2621. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, US Government NIH Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.
  2. AMA Council Report. Guidelines for Handling Parenteral Antineoplastics. JAMA, 1985; 253(11):1590-1592.
  3. National Study Commission on Cytotoxic Exposure Recommendations for Handling Cytotoxic Agents. Available from Louis R Jeffrey, ScD, Chairman, National Study Commission on Cytotoxic Exposure. Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences. 179 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.
  4. Clinical Oncological Society of Australia. Guidelines and Recommendations for Safe Handling of Antineoplastic Agents. Med J Australia, 1983; 1:426-428.
  5. Jones RB, et al: Safe Handling of Chemotherapeutic Agents: A Report from the Mount Sinai Medical Center. CA-A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 1983; (Sept/Oct) 258-263.
  6. American Society of Hospital Pharmacists Technical Assistance Bulletin on Handling Cytotoxic and Hazardous Drugs. Am J Hosp Pharm, 1990; 47:1033-1049.
  7. Controlling Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Drugs. (OSHA WORK-PRACTICE GUIDELINES.) Am J Health-Syst Pharm, 1996; 53:1669-1686.
  8. ONS Clinical Practice Committee. Cancer Chemotherapy Guidelines and Recommendations for Practice Pittsburgh, Pa: Oncology Nursing Society; 1999:32-41

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The authors make no claims of the accuracy of the information contained herein; and these suggested doses and/or guidelines are not a substitute for clinical judgment. Neither GlobalRPh Inc. nor any other party involved in the preparation of this document shall be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting in whole or part from any user's use of or reliance upon this material.    PLEASE READ THE DISCLAIMER CAREFULLY BEFORE ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE. BY ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE, YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS SET FORTH IN THE DISCLAIMER.
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