Local Anesthetics , esters, amides, background information, dosing.
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Local Anesthetics (ester and amide-type)

Local Anesthetics (ester and amide-type)

General Review

Clinical Pharmacology Allergic reactions
Management of Local Anesthetic Emergencies  

Ester

Chloroprocaine HCL (Nesacaine®) Procaine HCL (Novocain®)
Tetracaine HCL (Pontocaine®) --

Amides

Bupivacaine (Marcaine®, Sensorcaine® ) bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension- EXPAREL®
Lidocaine (Xylocaine®) c/o epi Lidocaine HCL (Xylocaine-MPF) Preservative free
Lidocaine (Xylocaine®) with epi Mepivacaine (Carbocaine®, Polocaine®)
Ropivacaine (Naropin)®  

Topical Ester

Topical Amide

Benzocaine Dibucaine®

Clinical Pharmacology top of page

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY (package insert data): Local anesthetics block the generation and the conduction of nerve impulses, presumably by increasing the threshold for electrical excitation in the nerve, by slowing the propagation of the nerve impulse, and by reducing the rate of rise of the action potential. In general, the progression of anesthesia is related to the diameter, myelination, and conduction velocity of affected nerve fibers. Clinically, the order of loss of nerve function is as follows: (1) pain, (2) temperature, (3) touch, (4) proprioception, and (5) skeletal muscle tone.

Systemic absorption of local anesthetics produces effects on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems (CNS). At blood concentrations achieved with normal therapeutic doses, changes in cardiac conduction, excitability, refractoriness, contractility, and peripheral vascular resistance are minimal. However, toxic blood concentrations depress cardiac conduction and excitability, which may lead to atrioventricular block, ventricular arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest, sometimes resulting in fatalities. In addition, myocardial contractility is depressed and peripheral vasodilation occurs, leading to decreased cardiac output and arterial blood pressure. Recent clinical reports and animal research suggest that these cardiovascular changes are more likely to occur after unintended intravascular injection of bupivacaine. Therefore, incremental dosing is necessary.

Following systemic absorption, local anesthetics can produce central nervous system stimulation, depression, or both. Apparent central stimulation is manifested as restlessness, tremors and shivering progressing to convulsions, followed by depression and coma progressing ultimately to respiratory arrest. However, the local anesthetics have a primary depressant effect on the medulla and on higher centers. The depressed stage may occur without a prior excited state.

Allergic reactions top of page

Allergic reactions: (Package insert)
Allergic-type reactions are rare and may occur as a result of sensitivity to the local anesthetic or to other formulation ingredients, such as the antimicrobial preservative methylparaben contained in multiple-dose vials or sulfites in epinephrine-containing solutions. These reactions are characterized by signs such as urticaria, pruritus, erythema, angioneurotic edema (including laryngeal edema), tachycardia, sneezing, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, syncope, excessive sweating, elevated temperature, and possibly, anaphylactoid-like symptomatology (including severe hypotension).

Cross sensitivity among members of the amide-type local anesthetic group has been reported. The usefulness of screening for sensitivity has not been definitely established.

Cross sensitivity among members of the ester-type local anesthetic group has been reported. The usefulness of screening for sensitivity has not been definitely established.
 
Key points:    Ester-type local anesthetics are much more likely to cause an allergic reaction compared to the  amide-type local anesthetics because of the formation of PABA during the metabolic process.  PABA may cause allergic reactions that range from urticaria to analphylaxis.  PABA is also formed during the metabolism of methylparaben (preservative) that is usually found in multi-dose vials including lidocaine (MDV) (amide-type local anesthetic). 

Sample structure of procaine (ester-type):
Procaine:  ester of diethylaminoethanol and para-aminobenzoic acid
procaine

As mentioned above, allergic-type reactions are rare and are usually the result of sensitivity to additives such as methylparaben (preservative) or sulfites (prevent degradation of vasopressors such as epinephrine) that are present in some of the local anesthetic products.

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General approach:
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If a patient has an allergic response to either class, attempt using a product from the
other class. Example: patient develops a rash with procaine (ester-type) --> switch to
lidocaine for example (amide-type).  Alternatively, if a patient has a reaction to both classes or even a single class, try using a preservative-free formulation such as lidocaine-MPF..

Management of Local Anesthetic Emergencies top of page

Management of Local Anesthetic Emergencies: The first consideration is prevention, best accomplished by careful and constant monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory vital signs and the patient’s state of consciousness after each local anesthetic injection. At the first sign of change, oxygen should be administered.

The first step in the management of systemic toxic reactions, as well as underventilation or apnea due to unintentional subarachnoid injection of drug solution, consists of immediate attention to the establishment and maintenance of a patent airway and effective assisted or controlled ventilation with 100% oxygen with a delivery system capable of permitting immediate positive airway pressure by mask. This may prevent convulsions if they have not already occurred.

If necessary, use drugs to control the convulsions. A 50 mg to 100 mg bolus IV injection of succinylcholine will paralyze the patient without depressing the central nervous or cardiovascular systems and facilitate ventilation. A bolus IV dose of 5 mg to 10 mg of diazepam or 50 mg to 100 mg of thiopental will permit ventilation and counteract central nervous system stimulation, but these drugs also depress central nervous system, respiratory, and cardiac function, add to postictal depression and may result in apnea. Intravenous barbiturates, anticonvulsant agents, or muscle relaxants should only be administered by those familiar with their use. Immediately after the institution of these ventilatory measures, the adequacy of the circulation should be evaluated. Supportive treatment of circulatory depression may require administration of intravenous fluids, and when appropriate, a vasopressor dictated by the clinical situation (such as ephedrine or epinephrine to enhance myocardial contractile force).

Endotracheal intubation, employing drugs and techniques familiar to the clinician, may be indicated after initial administration of oxygen by mask if difficulty is encountered in the maintenance of a patent airway, or if prolonged ventilatory support (assisted or controlled) is indicated.

Recent clinical data from patients experiencing local anesthetic-induced convulsions demonstrated rapid development of hypoxia, hypercarbia, and acidosis with bupivacaine within a minute of the onset of convulsions. These observations suggest that oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production are greatly increased during local anesthetic convulsions and emphasize the importance of immediate and effective ventilation with oxygen which may avoid cardiac arrest.

If not treated immediately, convulsions with simultaneous hypoxia, hypercarbia, and acidosis plus myocardial depression from the direct effects of the local anesthetic may result in cardiac arrhythmias, bradycardia, asystole, ventricular fibrillation, or cardiac arrest. Respiratory abnormalities, including apnea, may occur. Underventilation or apnea due to unintentional subarachnoid injection of local anesthetic solution may produce these same signs and also lead to cardiac arrest if ventilatory support is not instituted. If cardiac arrest should occur, successful outcome may require prolonged resuscitative efforts.

The supine position is dangerous in pregnant women at term because of aortocaval compression by the gravid uterus. Therefore during treatment of systemic toxicity, maternal hypotension or fetal bradycardia following regional block, the parturient should be maintained in the left lateral decubitus position if possible, or manual displacement of the uterus off the great vessels be accomplished.

Esters

Chloroprocaine (Nesacaine®): top of page

DESCRIPTION
Chloroprocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, isotonic, isobaric solution. Each milliliter of 2% solution contains 20 mg of chloroprocaine hydrochloride; 4 mg sodium chloride; with 1.8 mg sodium metabisulfite added in water for injection. Each milliliter of 3% solution contains 30 mg of chloroprocaine hydrochloride; 2.1 mg sodium chloride; with 1.8 mg sodium metabisulfite added in water for injection. May contain hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment. It contains no bacteriostat, antimicrobial agent or added buffer. Discard unused portion.

It is intended for production of local anesthesia by nerve block, infiltration, caudal or other epidural blocks.

Chloroprocaine Hydrochloride Injection has a pH of 3.1 (2.7 to 4.0).

Sodium Chloride, USP is chemically designated NaCl, a white crystalline compound freely soluble in water.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE:
Chloroprocaine Hydrochloride Injection in single-dose containers without preservative and without EDTA, is indicated for the production of local anesthesia by infiltration, peripheral and central nerve block, including lumbar and caudal epidural blocks.

Chloroprocaine Hydrochloride Injection is not to be used for subarachnoid administration.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
Chloroprocaine may be administered as a single injection or continuously through an indwelling catheter. As with all local anesthetics, the dose administered varies with the anesthetic procedure, the vascularity of the tissues, the depth of anesthesia and degree of muscle relaxation required, the duration of anesthesia desired, and the physical condition of the patient. The smallest dose and concentration required to produce the desired result should be used. Dosage should be reduced for children, elderly and debilitated patients and patients with cardiac and/or liver disease. The maximum single recommended doses of chloroprocaine in adults are: without epinephrine, 11 mg/kg, not to exceed a maximum total dose of 800 mg; with epinephrine (1:200,000), 14 mg/kg, not to exceed a maximum total dose of 1000 mg. For specific techniques and procedures, refer to standard textbooks.

There have been adverse event reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures. Chloroprocaine is not approved for this use (see WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Caudal and Lumbar Epidural Block:

In order to guard against adverse experiences sometimes noted following unintended penetration of the subarachnoid space, the following procedure modifications are recommended:

1. Use an adequate test dose (3 mL of 3% or 5 mL of 2% Chloroprocaine Hydrochloride Injection) prior to induction of complete block. This test dose should be repeated if the patient is moved in such a fashion as to have displaced the epidural catheter. Allow adequate time for onset of anesthesia following administration of each test dose. 2. Avoid the rapid injection of a large volume of local anesthetic injection through the catheter. Consider fractional doses, when feasible. 3. In the event of the known injection of a large volume of local anesthetic injection into the subarachnoid space, after suitable resuscitation and if the catheter is in place, consider attempting the recovery of drug by draining a moderate amount of cerebrospinal fluid (such as 10 mL) through the epidural catheter.

As a guide for some routine procedures, suggested doses are given below:

1. Infiltration and Peripheral Nerve Block: Chloroprocaine Hydrochloride Injection

Anesthetic Procedure

Solution Concentration %

Volume (mL)

Total Dose (mg)

Mandibular

2

2 - 3

40 - 60

Infraorbital

2

0.5 - 1

10 - 20

Brachial plexus

2

30 - 40

600 - 800

Digital (without epinephrine)

1

3 - 4

30 - 40

Pudendal

2

10 each side

400

Paracervical

1

3 per each of 4 sites

up to 120


2. Caudal and Lumbar Epidural Block: For caudal anesthesia, the initial dose is 15 to 25 mL of a 2% or 3% solution. Repeated doses may be given at 40 to 60 minute intervals.

For lumbar epidural anesthesia, 2 to 2.5 mL per segment of a 2% or 3% solution can be used. The usual total volume of Chloroprocaine Hydrochloride Injection is from 15 to 25 mL. Repeated doses 2 to 6 mL less than the original dose may be given at 40 to 50 minute intervals.

The above dosages are recommended as a guide for use in the average adult. Maximum dosages of all local anesthetics must be individualized after evaluating the size and physical condition of the patient and the rate of systemic absorption from a particular injection site.

Pediatric Dosage:
It is difficult to recommend a maximum dose of any drug for children, since this varies as a function of age and weight. For children over 3 years of age who have a normal lean body mass and normal body development, the maximum dose is determined by the child’s age and weight and should not exceed 11 mg/kg (5 mg/lb). For example, in a child of 5 years weighing 50 lbs (23 kg), the dose of chloroprocaine HCl without epinephrine would be 250 mg. Concentrations of 0.5 - 1% are suggested for infiltration and 1 - 1.5% for nerve block. In order to guard against systemic toxicity, the lowest effective concentration and lowest effective dose should be used at all times. Some of the lower concentrations for use in infants and smaller children are not available in pre-packaged containers; it will be necessary to dilute available concentrations with the amount of 0.9% sodium chloride injection necessary to obtain the required final concentration of chloroprocaine injection.

Preparation of Epinephrine Injections:
To prepare a 1:200,000 epinephrine-chloroprocaine HCl injection, add 0.15 mL of 1 to 1000 Epinephrine Injection to 30 mL of Chloroprocaine Hydrochloride Injection.

Chloroprocaine is incompatible with caustic alkalis and their carbonates, soaps, silver salts, iodine and iodides.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever injection and container permit. As with other anesthetics having a free aromatic amino group, Chloroprocaine Hydrochloride Injection is slightly photosensitive and may become discolored after prolonged exposure to light. It is recommended that this product be stored in the original outer containers, protected from direct sunlight. Discolored injection should not be administered. If exposed to low temperatures, Chloroprocaine Hydrochloride Injection may deposit crystals of chloroprocaine HCl which will redissolve with shaking when returned to room temperature. The product should not be used if it contains undissolved (e.g., particulate) material.


CONTRAINDICATIONS:
Chloroprocaine Hydrochloride Injection is contraindicated in patients hypersensitive (allergic) to drugs of the PABA ester group.

Lumbar and caudal epidural anesthesia should be used with extreme caution in persons with the following conditions: existing neurological disease, spinal deformities, septicemia and severe hypertension.

WARNINGS:
 LOCAL ANESTHETICS SHOULD ONLY BE EMPLOYED BY CLINICIANS WHO ARE WELL VERSED IN DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY AND OTHER ACUTE EMERGENCIES WHICH MIGHT ARISE FROM THE BLOCK TO BE EMPLOYED, AND THEN ONLY AFTER ENSURING THE IMMEDIATE AVAILABILITY OF OXYGEN, OTHER RESUSCITATIVE DRUGS, CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATIVE EQUIPMENT, AND THE PERSONNEL RESOURCES NEEDED FOR PROPER MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC REACTIONS AND RELATED EMERGENCIES (See also ADVERSE REACTIONS and PRECAUTIONS.) DELAY IN PROPER MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY, UNDERVENTILATION FROM ANY CAUSE AND/OR ALTERED SENSITIVITY MAY LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACIDOSIS, CARDIAC ARREST AND, POSSIBLY, DEATH.

Chloroprocaine Hydrochloride Injection, contains no preservative; discard unused injection remaining in vial after initial use.

Intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures is an unapproved use, and there have been post-marketing reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving such infusions. The majority of reported cases of chondrolysis have involved the shoulder joint; cases of gleno-humeral chondrolysis have been described in pediatric and adult patients following intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics with and without epinephrine for periods of 48 to 72 hours. There is insufficient information to determine whether shorter infusion periods are not associated with these findings. The time of onset of symptoms, such as joint pain, stiffness and loss of motion can be variable, but may begin as early as the 2nd month after surgery. Currently, there is no effective treatment for chondrolysis; patients who experienced chondrolysis have required additional diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and some required arthroplasty or shoulder replacement.

Vasopressors should not be used in the presence of ergot-type oxytocic drugs, since a severe persistent hypertension may occur.

To avoid intravascular injection, aspiration should be performed before the anesthetic solution is injected. The needle must be repositioned until no blood return can be elicited. However, the absence of blood in the syringe does not guarantee that intravascular injection has been avoided.

Mixtures of local anesthetics are sometimes employed to compensate for the slower onset of one drug and the shorter duration of action of the second drug. Experiments in primates suggest that toxicity is probably additive when mixtures of local anesthetics are employed, but some experiments in rodents suggest synergism. Caution regarding toxic equivalence should be exercised when mixtures of local anesthetics are employed.

Chloroprocaine Hydrochloride Injection contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic people.

DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS:
Chloroprocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is supplied in single-dose containers as follows:
Concentration  NDC No. Container Container Size
2% 0409-4169-01 Vial 30 mL
3% 0409-4170-01 Vial 30 mL


Store at 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]

SOURCE:
Package insert data:
Hospira, Inc., Lake Forest, IL 60045 USA
Revised: March, 2010

Procaine (Novocain®): top of page

novocain (Procaine Hydrochloride) injection, solution
Local Anesthetic for Local Infiltration and Peripheral Nerve Block

THESE SOLUTIONS ARE NOT INTENDED FOR SPINAL OR EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA OR DENTAL USE

DESCRIPTION
Procaine hydrochloride is benzoic acid, 4-amino-, 2-(diethylamino) ethyl ester, monohydrochloride, the ester of diethylaminoethanol and para-aminobenzoic acid.
The solutions are made isotonic with sodium chloride and the pH is adjusted between 3 and 5.5 with sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid.

Procaine hydrochloride is related chemically and pharmacologically to the ester-type local anesthetics. It contains an ester linkage between the aromatic nucleus and the amino group.

NOVOCAIN is available as sterile solutions in concentrations of 1% and 2% for injection via local infiltration and peripheral nerve block.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE:
NOVOCAIN is indicated for the production of local or regional analgesia and anesthesia by local infiltration and peripheral nerve block techniques.

The routes of administration and concentrations are: for local infiltration use 0.25% to 0.5% (via dilution) and for peripheral nerve blocks use 0.5% (via dilution), 1%, and 2%. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for additional information.)

Standard textbooks should be consulted to determine the accepted procedures and techniques for the administration of NOVOCAIN.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
The dose of any local anesthetic administered varies with the anesthetic procedure, the area to be anesthetized, the vascularity of the tissues, the number of neuronal segments to be blocked, the depth of anesthesia and degree of muscle relaxation required, the duration of anesthesia desired, individual tolerance, and the physical condition of the patient. The smallest dose and concentration required to produce the desired result should be administered. Dosages of NOVOCAIN should be reduced for elderly and debilitated patients and patients with cardiac and/or liver disease. The rapid injection of a large volume of local anesthetic solution should be avoided and fractional doses should be used when feasible.

For specific techniques and procedures, refer to standard textbooks.

For infiltration anesthesia, 0.25% or 0.5% solution; 350 mg to 600 mg is generally considered to be a single safe total dose. To prepare 60 mL of a 0.5% solution (5 mg/mL), dilute 30 mL of the 1% solution with 30 mL sodium chloride injection 0.9%. To prepare 60 mL of a 0.25% solution (2.5 mg/mL), dilute 15 mL of the 1% solution with 45 mL sodium chloride injection 0.9%. An anesthetic solution of 0.5 mL to 1 mL of epinephrine 1:1,000 per 100 mL may be added for vasoconstrictive effect (1:200,000 to 1:100,000). (See WARNINGS and package insert for PRECAUTIONS.)

For peripheral nerve block, 0.5% solution (up to 200 mL), 1% solution (up to 100 mL), or 2% solution (up to 50 mL). The use of the 2% solution should usually be limited to cases requiring a small volume of anesthetic solution (10 mL to 25 mL). An anesthetic solution of 0.5 mL to 1 mL of epinephrine 1:1,000 per 100 mL may be added for vasoconstrictive effect (1:200,000 to 1:100,000). (See WARNINGS and package insert for PRECAUTIONS.)

THE USUAL TOTAL DOSE DURING ONE TREATMENT SHOULD NOT EXCEED 1,000 MG.

This product should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit. Do not use solutions if crystals, cloudiness, or discoloration is observed. Examine solution carefully before use. Reautoclaving increases likelihood of crystal formation. Solutions which are discolored or which contain particulate matter should not be administered.

Unused portions of solutions not containing preservatives should be discarded.

Pediatric Use:
In pediatric patients 15 mg/kg of a 0.5% solution for local infiltration is the maximum recommended dose.

CONTRAINDICATIONS:
NOVOCAIN is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to procaine, drugs of a similar chemical configuration, or para-aminobenzoic acid or its derivatives.

It is also contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to other components of solutions of NOVOCAIN.


WARNINGS:
Contains acetone sodium bisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic people.

LOCAL ANESTHETICS SHOULD ONLY BE EMPLOYED BY CLINICIANS WHO ARE WELL VERSED IN DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY AND OTHER ACUTE EMERGENCIES WHICH MIGHT ARISE FROM THE BLOCK TO BE EMPLOYED, AND THEN ONLY AFTER INSURING THE IMMEDIATE AVAILABILITY OF OXYGEN, OTHER RESUSCITATIVE DRUGS, CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATIVE EQUIPMENT, AND THE PERSONNEL RESOURCES NEEDED FOR PROPER MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC REACTIONS AND RELATED EMERGENCIES. (See also ADVERSE REACTIONS and PRECAUTIONS.) DELAY IN PROPER MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY, UNDERVENTILATION FROM ANY CAUSE, AND/OR ALTERED SENSITIVITY MAY LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACIDOSIS, CARDIAC ARREST, AND, POSSIBLY, DEATH.

It is essential that aspiration for blood or cerebrospinal fluid, where applicable, be done prior to injecting any local anesthetic, both the original dose and all subsequent doses, to avoid intravascular or subarachnoid injection. However, a negative aspiration does not ensure against an intravascular or subarachnoid injection.

Reactions resulting in fatality have occurred on rare occasions with the use of local anesthetics, even in the absence of a history of hypersensitivity. Large doses of local anesthetics should not be used in patients with heartblock.

NOVOCAIN with epinephrine or other vasopressors should not be used concomitantly with ergot-type oxytocic drugs, because a severe persistent hypertension may occur. Likewise, solutions of NOVOCAIN containing a vasoconstrictor, such as epinephrine, should be used with extreme caution in patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) or antidepressants of the triptyline or imipramine types, because severe prolonged hypertension or disturbances of cardiac rhythm may occur.

Local anesthetic procedures should be used with caution when there is inflammation and/or sepsis in the region of the proposed injection.

Mixing or the prior or intercurrent use of any local anesthetic with NOVOCAIN cannot be recommended because of insufficient data on the clinical use of such mixtures.

DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS:
Single-dose containers and multiple-dose containers of NOVOCAIN may be sterilized by autoclaving at 15-pound pressure, 121°C (250°F) for 15 minutes. Do not use solutions if crystals, cloudiness, or discoloration is observed. Examine solution carefully before use. Reautoclaving increases likelihood of crystal formation. Do not administer solutions which are discolored or which contain particulate matter. Protect solutions from light.

Unused portions of solutions not containing preservatives, i.e., those supplied in ampuls, should be discarded following initial use.

THESE SOLUTIONS ARE NOT INTENDED FOR SPINAL OR EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA OR DENTAL
List Container Concentration Fill Quantity
1808 Uni-Amp® unit dose pak 1 % 2 mL 25
1808 Single-Dose Ampuls 1 % 6 mL 50
1824 Multiple-Dose Vials 1 % 30 mL 1
1825 Multiple-Dose Vials 2 % 30 mL 1

SOURCE:
Package insert data:
©Hospira 2004 EN-0665 Printed in USA
HOSPIRA, INC., LAKE FOREST, IL 60045 USA
Rev: November, 2004

Tetracaine HCL (Pontocaine®): top of page

 Tetracaine HCl Injection, USP for Prolonged Spinal Anesthesia

Description
Tetracaine hydrochloride is 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl p-(butylamino)benzoate monohydrochloride. It is a white crystalline, odorless powder that is readily soluble in water, physiologic saline solution, and dextrose solution.

Tetracaine hydrochloride is a local anesthetic of the ester-linkage type, related to procaine.
1% Solution: A sterile, isotonic, isobaric solution.
Each mL contains:
Active: 10 mg Tetracaine Hydrochloride
Inactives: 7.5 mg Sodium Chloride, Hydrochloric Acid and/or Sodium Hydroxide may be added to adjust pH (3.2 to 6.0) and Water for Injection, USP.

Nitrogen gas has been used to displace the air in the ampules.
This formulation does not contain preservatives.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE:
Tetracaine hydrochloride is indicated for the production of spinal anesthesia for procedures requiring two to three hours.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
As with all anesthetics, the dosage varies and depends upon the area to be anesthetized, the number of neuronal segments to be blocked, individual tolerance, and the technique of anesthesia. The lowest dosage needed to provide effective anesthesia should be administered. For specific techniques and procedures, refer to standard textbooks.

Suggested Dosage for Spinal Anesthesia Using 1% Tetracaine HCl Injection, USP
Extent of Anesthesia Dose of solution (mL) Volume of spinal fluid (mL) Site of injection  (lumbar interspace)
Perineum 0.5 (= 5 mg)* 0.5 4th
Perineum and lower extremities 1.0 (= 10 mg) 1.0 3rd or 4th
Up to costal margin (=15 mg to 20 mg) 1.5 to 2.0 1.5 to 2.0 2nd, 3rd, or 4th

The extent and degree of spinal anesthesia depend upon dosage, specific gravity of the anesthetic solution, volume of solution used, force of the injection, level of puncture, position of the patient during and immediately after injection, etc.

When spinal fluid is added to 1% tetracaine hydrochloride injection, some turbidity results, the degree depending on the pH of the spinal fluid, the temperature of the solution during mixing, as well as the amount of drug and diluent employed. Liberation of base (which is completed within the spinal canal) is held to be essential for satisfactory results with any spinal anesthetic.

The specific gravity of spinal fluid at 25°C/25°C varies under normal conditions from 1.0063 to 1.0075. The 1% concentration in saline solution has a specific gravity of 1.0060 to 1.0074 at 25°C/25°C.

A hyperbaric solution may be prepared by mixing equal volumes of the 1% solution and Dextrose Solution 10%.

Examine ampules carefully before use. Do not use solution if crystals, cloudiness, or discoloration is observed.

This formulation of tetracaine hydrochloride does not contain antimicrobial or bacteriostatic agents; therefore, unused portions should be discarded.

Sterilization of Ampules
The tetracaine hydrochloride injection is sterile within an undamaged ampule. To destroy bacteria on the exterior of ampules use heat sterilization (autoclaving) before opening. Immersion in antiseptic solution is not recommended.

Autoclave at 15-pounds pressure, at 121°C (250°F), for 15 minutes.

Autoclaving increases likelihood of crystal formation. Unused autoclaved ampules should be discarded. Under no circumstances should unused ampules which have been autoclaved be returned to stock.

CONTRAINDICATIONS:
Spinal anesthesia with tetracaine hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to tetracaine hydrochloride or to drugs of a similar chemical configuration (ester-type local anesthetics), or aminobenzoic acid or its derivatives; and in patients for whom spinal anesthesia as a technique is contraindicated.

The decision as to whether or not spinal anesthesia should be used for an individual patient should be made by the physician after weighing the advantages with the risks and possible complications. Contraindications to spinal anesthesia as a technique can be found in standard reference texts, and usually include generalized septicemia, infection at the site of injection, certain diseases of the cerebrospinal system, uncontrolled hypotension, etc.

WARNINGS:
RESUSCITATIVE EQUIPMENT AND DRUGS SHOULD BE IMMEDIATELY AVAILABLE WHENEVER ANY LOCAL ANESTHETIC DRUG IS USED.

Large doses of local anesthetics should not be used in patients with heartblock.

Reactions resulting in fatality have occurred on rare occasions with the use of local anesthetics, even in the absence of a history of hypersensitivity.

DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS:
1% isotonic isobaric solution: 2 mL Ampules, box of 25.

NDC 17478-045-32
Storage: Store under refrigeration. Protect ampules from light.

SOURCE:
Package insert data:
Akorn, Inc.
Lake Forest, IL 60045
Rev. 12/08

Amides

Bupivacaine (Marcaine®, Sensorcaine® ): top of page

WARNINGS:

THE 0.75% CONCENTRATION OF MARCAINE IS NOT RECOMMENDED FOR OBSTETRICAL ANESTHESIA. THERE HAVE BEEN REPORTS OF CARDIAC ARREST WITH DIFFICULT RESUSCITATION OR DEATH DURING USE OF MARCAINE FOR EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA IN OBSTETRICAL PATIENTS. IN MOST CASES, THIS HAS FOLLOWED USE OF THE 0.75% CONCENTRATION. RESUSCITATION HAS BEEN DIFFICULT OR IMPOSSIBLE DESPITE APPARENTLY ADEQUATE PREPARATION AND APPROPRIATE MANAGEMENT. CARDIAC ARREST HAS OCCURRED AFTER CONVULSIONS RESULTING FROM SYSTEMIC TOXICITY, PRESUMABLY FOLLOWING UNINTENTIONAL INTRAVASCULAR INJECTION. THE 0.75% CONCENTRATION SHOULD BE RESERVED FOR SURGICAL PROCEDURES WHERE A HIGH DEGREE OF MUSCLE RELAXATION AND PROLONGED EFFECT ARE NECESSARY.

DESCRIPTION
Bupivacaine hydrochloride is 2-Piperidinecarboxamide, 1-butyl-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-, monohydrochloride, monohydrate, a white crystalline powder that is freely soluble in 95 percent ethanol, soluble in water, and slightly soluble in chloroform or acetone.

MARCAINE is available in sterile isotonic solutions with and without epinephrine (as bitartrate) 1:200,000 for injection via local infiltration, peripheral nerve block, and caudal and lumbar epidural blocks. Solutions of MARCAINE may be autoclaved if they do not contain epinephrine. Solutions are clear and colorless.

Bupivacaine is related chemically and pharmacologically to the aminoacyl local anesthetics. It is a homologue of mepivacaine and is chemically related to lidocaine. All three of these anesthetics contain an amide linkage between the aromatic nucleus and the amino, or piperidine group. They differ in this respect from the procaine-type local anesthetics, which have an ester linkage.

MARCAINE - Sterile isotonic solutions containing sodium chloride. In multiple-dose vials, each mL also contains 1 mg methylparaben as antiseptic preservative. The pH of these solutions is adjusted to between 4 and 6.5 with sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid.

MARCAINE with epinephrine 1:200,000 (as bitartrate)- Sterile isotonic solutions containing sodium chloride. Each mL contains bupivacaine hydrochloride and 0.0091 mg epinephrine bitartrate, with 0.5 mg sodium metabisulfite, 0.001 mL monothioglycerol, and 2 mg ascorbic acid as antioxidants, 0.0017 mL 60% sodium lactate buffer, and 0.1 mg edetate calcium disodium as stabilizer. In multiple-dose vials, each mL also contains 1 mg methylparaben as antiseptic preservative. The pH of these solutions is adjusted to between 3.4 and 4.5 with sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid. The specific gravity of MARCAINE 0.5% with epinephrine 1:200,000 (as bitartrate) at 25°C is 1.008 and at 37°C is 1.008.


INDICATIONS AND USAGE:
MARCAINE is indicated for the production of local or regional anesthesia or analgesia for surgery, dental and oral surgery procedures, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and for obstetrical procedures. Only the 0.25% and 0.5% concentrations are indicated for obstetrical anesthesia.
(See WARNINGS.)

Experience with nonobstetrical surgical procedures in pregnant patients is not sufficient to recommend use of 0.75% concentration of MARCAINE in these patients.

MARCAINE is not recommended for intravenous regional anesthesia (Bier Block). See WARNINGS.

The routes of administration and indicated MARCAINE concentrations are:
 local infiltration  0.25%
 peripheral nerve block 0.25% and 0.5%
 retrobulbar block 0.75%
 sympathetic block 0.25%
 lumbar epidural

0.25%, 0.5%, and 0.75%
(0.75% not for obstetrical anesthesia)

 caudal  0.25% and 0.5% 
 epidural test dose  0.5% with epinephrine 1:200,000 
 dental blocks  0.5% with epinephrine 1:200,000


DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
The dose of any local anesthetic administered varies with the anesthetic procedure, the area to be anesthetized, the vascularity of the tissues, the number of neuronal segments to be blocked, the depth of anesthesia and degree of muscle relaxation required, the duration of anesthesia desired, individual tolerance, and the physical condition of the patient. The smallest dose and concentration required to produce the desired result should be administered. Dosages of MARCAINE should be reduced for elderly and/or debilitated patients and patients with cardiac and/or liver disease. The rapid injection of a large volume of local anesthetic solution should be avoided and fractional (incremental) doses should be used when feasible.

For specific techniques and procedures, refer to standard textbooks.

There have been adverse event reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures. MARCAINE is not approved for this use (see WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

In recommended doses, MARCAINE produces complete sensory block, but the effect on motor function differs among the three concentrations.

0.25%--when used for caudal, epidural, or peripheral nerve block, produces incomplete motor block. Should be used for operations in which muscle relaxation is not important, or when another means of providing muscle relaxation is used concurrently. Onset of action may be slower than with the 0.5% or 0.75% solutions.

0.5%--provides motor blockade for caudal, epidural, or nerve block, but muscle relaxation may be inadequate for operations in which complete muscle relaxation is essential.

0.75%--produces complete motor block. Most useful for epidural block in abdominal operations requiring complete muscle relaxation, and for retrobulbar anesthesia. Not for obstetrical anesthesia.

The duration of anesthesia with MARCAINE is such that for most indications, a single dose is sufficient.

Maximum dosage limit must be individualized in each case after evaluating the size and physical status of the patient, as well as the usual rate of systemic absorption from a particular injection site. Most experience to date is with single doses of MARCAINE up to 225 mg with epinephrine 1:200,000 and 175 mg without epinephrine; more or less drug may be used depending on individualization of each case.

These doses may be repeated up to once every three hours. In clinical studies to date, total daily doses have been up to 400 mg. Until further experience is gained, this dose should not be exceeded in 24 hours. The duration of anesthetic effect may be prolonged by the addition of epinephrine.

The dosages in Table 1 have generally proved satisfactory and are recommended as a guide for use in the average adult. These dosages should be reduced for elderly or debilitated patients. Until further experience is gained, MARCAINE is not recommended for pediatric patients younger than 12 years. MARCAINE is contraindicated for obstetrical paracervical blocks, and is not recommended for intravenous regional anesthesia (Bier Block).

Use in Epidural Anesthesia: During epidural administration of MARCAINE, 0.5% and 0.75% solutions should be administered in incremental doses of 3 mL to 5 mL with sufficient time between doses to detect toxic manifestations of unintentional intravascular or intrathecal injection. In obstetrics, only the 0.5% and 0.25% concentrations should be used; incremental doses of 3 mL to 5 mL of the 0.5% solution not exceeding 50 mg to 100 mg at any dosing interval are recommended. Repeat doses should be preceded by a test dose containing epinephrine if not contraindicated. Use only the single-dose ampuls and single-dose vials for caudal or epidural anesthesia; the multiple-dose vials contain a preservative and therefore should not be used for these procedures.

Test Dose for Caudal and Lumbar Epidural Blocks: The Test Dose of MARCAINE (0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine in a 3 mL ampul) is recommended for use as a test dose when clinical conditions permit prior to caudal and lumbar epidural blocks. This may serve as a warning of unintended intravascular or subarachnoid injection. (See package insert for PRECAUTIONS.) The pulse rate and other signs should be monitored carefully immediately following each test dose administration to detect possible intravascular injection, and adequate time for onset of spinal block should be allotted to detect possible intrathecal injection. An intravascular or subarachnoid injection is still possible even if results of the test dose are negative. The test dose itself may produce a systemic toxic reaction, high spinal or cardiovascular effects from the epinephrine. (See WARNINGS and package insert for OVERDOSAGE.)

Use in Dentistry: The 0.5% concentration with epinephrine is recommended for infiltration and block injection in the maxillary and mandibular area when a longer duration of local anesthetic action is desired, such as for oral surgical procedures generally associated with significant postoperative pain. The average dose of 1.8 mL (9 mg) per injection site will usually suffice; an occasional second dose of 1.8 mL (9 mg) may be used if necessary to produce adequate anesthesia after making allowance for 2 to 10 minutes onset time.  The lowest effective dose should be employed and time should be allowed between injections; it is recommended that the total dose for all injection sites, spread out over a single dental sitting, should not ordinarily exceed 90 mg for a healthy adult patient (ten 1.8 mL injections of 0.5% MARCAINE with epinephrine). Injections should be made slowly and with frequent aspirations. Until further experience is gained, MARCAINE in dentistry is not recommended for pediatric patients younger than 12 years.

Unused portions of solution not containing preservatives, i.e., those supplied in single-dose ampuls and single-dose vials, should be discarded following initial use.

This product should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit. Solutions which are discolored or which contain particulate matter should not be administered.

Table 1. Recommended Concentrations and Doses of MARCAINE 
Type of    
Each Dose 
Motor 
Block   Conc. (mL) (mg)  Block1 

Local infiltration 

0.25%4  up to max.  up to max -- 
Epidural  0.75%2,4  10-20  75-150  complete 
  0.5%4  10-20  50-100 moderate to complete 
  0.25%4  10-20  25-50  partial to moderate
         
         
Caudal  0.5%4  15-30  75-150  moderate to complete
   0.25%4 15-30  37.5-75  moderate
         
Peripheral nerves  0.5%4  5 to max 25 to max moderate  to complete
   0.25%4 5 to max  12.5 to max  moderate to complete
         
Retrobulbar3  0.75%  2-4 15-30   complete
Sympathetic   0.25% 20-50  50-125  -- 
 Dental3  0.5% w/epi 1.8-3.6  per site 9-18 per site  --
         
 Epidural3  0.5% 2-3  10-15  -- 
 Test Dose  w/epi    (10-15 micrograms epinephrine)  

1. With continuous (intermittent) techniques, repeat doses increase the degree of motor block. The first repeat dose of 0.5% may produce complete motor block. Intercostal nerve block with 0.25% may also produce complete motor block for intra-abdominal surgery.

2. For single-dose use, not for intermittent epidural technique. Not for obstetrical anesthesia.

3. See package insert for PRECAUTIONS.

4. Solutions with or without epinephrine.

CONTRAINDICATIONS:
MARCAINE is contraindicated in obstetrical paracervical block anesthesia. Its use in this technique has resulted in fetal bradycardia and death.

MARCAINE is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to it or to any local anesthetic agent of the amide-type or to other components of MARCAINE solutions.

WARNINGS:
LOCAL ANESTHETICS SHOULD ONLY BE EMPLOYED BY CLINICIANS WHO ARE WELL VERSED IN DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY AND OTHER ACUTE EMERGENCIES WHICH MIGHT ARISE FROM THE BLOCK TO BE EMPLOYED, AND THEN ONLY AFTER INSURING THE IMMEDIATE AVAILABILITY OF OXYGEN, OTHER RESUSCITATIVE DRUGS, CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATIVE EQUIPMENT, AND THE PERSONNEL RESOURCES NEEDED FOR PROPER MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC REACTIONS AND RELATED EMERGENCIES. (See also ADVERSE REACTIONS, PRECAUTIONS, and OVERDOSAGE.) DELAY IN PROPER MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY, UNDERVENTILATION FROM ANY CAUSE, AND/OR ALTERED SENSITIVITY MAY LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACIDOSIS, CARDIAC ARREST AND, POSSIBLY, DEATH.

Local anesthetic solutions containing antimicrobial preservatives, i.e., those supplied in multiple-dose vials, should not be used for epidural or caudal anesthesia because safety has not been established with regard to intrathecal injection, either intentionally or unintentionally, of such preservatives.

Intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures is an unapproved use, and there have been post-marketing reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving such infusions. The majority of reported cases of chondrolysis have involved the shoulder joint; cases of gleno-humeral chondrolysis have been described in pediatric and adult patients following intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics with and without epinephrine for periods of 48 to 72 hours. There is insufficient information to determine whether shorter infusion periods are not associated with these findings. The time of onset of symptoms, such as joint pain, stiffness and loss of motion can be variable, but may begin as early as the 2nd month after surgery. Currently, there is no effective treatment for chondrolysis; patients who experienced chondrolysis have required additional diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and some required arthroplasty or shoulder replacement.

It is essential that aspiration for blood or cerebrospinal fluid (where applicable) be done prior to injecting any local anesthetic, both the original dose and all subsequent doses, to avoid intravascular or subarachnoid injection. However, a negative aspiration does not ensure against an intravascular or subarachnoid injection.

MARCAINE with epinephrine 1:200,000 or other vasopressors should not be used concomitantly with ergot-type oxytocic drugs, because a severe persistent hypertension may occur. Likewise, solutions of MARCAINE containing a vasoconstrictor, such as epinephrine, should be used with extreme caution in patients receiving monoamineoxidase inhibitors (MAOI) or antidepressants of the triptyline or imipramine types, because severe prolonged hypertension may result.

Until further experience is gained in pediatric patients younger than 12 years, administration of MARCAINE in this age group is not recommended.

Mixing or the prior or intercurrent use of any other local anesthetic with MARCAINE cannot be recommended because of insufficient data on the clinical use of such mixtures.

There have been reports of cardiac arrest and death during the use of MARCAINE for intravenous regional anesthesia (Bier Block). Information on safe dosages and techniques of administration of MARCAINE in this procedure is lacking. Therefore, MARCAINE is not recommended for use in this technique.

MARCAINE with epinephrine 1:200,000 contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic people. Single-dose ampuls and single-dose vials of MARCAINE without epinephrine do not contain sodium metabisulfite.

DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS:
 These solutions are not for spinal anesthesia.

Store at 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]

MARCAINE --Solutions of MARCAINE that do not contain epinephrine may be autoclaved. Autoclave at 15-pound pressure, 121°C (250°F) for 15 minutes.
NDC No. Container Fill Quantity
0.25%---Contains 2.5 mg bupivacaine hydrochloride per mL.
0409-1559-10 Single-dose vials 10 mL box of 10
0409-1559-30 Single-dose vials 30 mL box of 10
0409-1587-50 Multiple-dose vials 50 mL box of 1
0.5%---Contains 5 mg bupivacaine hydrochloride per mL.
0409-1560-10 Single-dose vials 10 mL box of 10
0409-1560-29 Single-dose vials 30 mL box of 10
0409-1610-50 Multiple-dose vials 50 mL box of 1
0.75%---Contains 7.5 mg bupivacaine hydrochloride per mL.
0409-1582-10 Single-dose vials 10 mL box of 10
0409-1582-29 Single-dose vials 30 mL box of 10


 MARCAINE with epinephrine 1:200,000 (as bitartrate)--Solutions of MARCAINE that contain epinephrine should not be autoclaved and should be protected from light. Do not use the solution if its color is pinkish or darker than slightly yellow or if it contains a precipitate.
NDC No. Container Fill Quantity
0.25% with epinephrine 1:200,000---Contains 2.5 mg bupivacaine hydrochloride per mL.
0409-1746-10 Single-dose vials 10 mL box of 10
0409-1746-30 Single-dose vials 30 mL box of 10
0409-1752-50 Multiple-dose vials 50 mL box of 1
0.5% with epinephrine 1:200,000---Contains 5 mg bupivacaine hydrochloride per mL.
0409-1749-03 Single-dose ampuls 3 mL box of 10
0409-1749-10 Single-dose vials 10 mL box of 10
0409-1749-29 Single-dose vials 30 mL box of 10
0409-1755-50 Multiple-dose vials 50 mL box of 1



SOURCE:
Package insert data:
Revised: November, 2009
Hospira, Inc., Lake Forest, IL 60045 USA

 bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension- EXPAREL® top of page

Drug UPDATEEXPAREL (bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension)
[Drug information  /  PDF]  
Dosing:  Click (+) next to Dosage and Administration section (drug info link)
ABBREVIATED MONOGRAPH - SEE PACKAGE INSERT.

Initial U.S. Approval:  2011

Mechanism of Action: Local anesthetics block the generation and the conduction of nerve impulses presumably by increasing the threshold for electrical excitation in the nerve, by slowing the propagation of the nerve impulse, and by reducing the rate of rise of the action potential. In general, the progression of anesthesia is related to the diameter, myelination, and conduction velocity of affected nerve fibers. Clinically, the order of loss of nerve function is as follows: (1) pain, (2) temperature, (3) touch, (4) proprioception, and (5) skeletal muscle tone.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE
EXPAREL is a liposome injection of bupivacaine, an amide local anesthetic, indicated for single-dose infiltration into the surgical site to produce postsurgical analgesia (1).

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
EXPAREL is intended for single-dose administration only.

The recommended dose of EXPAREL is based on the following factors:
Size of the surgical site
Volume required to cover the area
Individual patient factors that may impact the safety of an amide local anesthetic
Maximum dose of 266 mg (20 mL)

Inject EXPAREL slowly into soft tissue via infiltration (2.1).

DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
EXPAREL (bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension)
20 mL single use vial, 1.3% (13.3 mg/mL)

CONTRAINDICATIONS
EXPAREL is contraindicated in obstetrical paracervical block anesthesia (4).

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Monitoring of cardiovascular and neurological status, as well as vital signs should be performed during and after injection of EXPAREL as with other local anesthetic products (5.1).
Because amide-type local anesthetics, such as bupivacaine, are metabolized by the liver, EXPAREL should be used cautiously in patients with hepatic disease. Patients with severe hepatic disease, because of their inability to metabolize local anesthetics normally, are at a greater risk of developing toxic plasma concentrations (5.1).
Other formulations of bupivacaine should not be administered within 96 hours following administration of EXPAREL (5.2).

Mepivacaine (Carbocaine®, Polocaine®): top of page

POLOCAINE (mepivacaine hydrochloride) injection, solution
POLOCAINE-MPF (mepivacaine hydrochloride) injection, solution

THESE SOLUTIONS ARE NOT INTENDED FOR SPINAL ANESTHESIA OR DENTAL USE

DESCRIPTION:
Mepivacaine hydrochloride is 2-Piperidinecarboxamide, N-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl)-1-methyl-, monohydrochloride.
The molecular formula is C15H22N2O • HCl.

It is a white, crystalline odorless, powder, soluble in water, but very resistant to both acid and alkaline hydrolysis.

Mepivacaine hydrochloride is a local anesthetic available as sterile isotonic solutions (clear, colorless) in concentrations of 1%, 1.5% and 2% for injection via local infiltration, peripheral nerve block, and caudal and lumbar epidural blocks.

Mepivacaine hydrochloride is related chemically and pharmacologically to the amide-type local anesthetics. It contains an amide linkage between the aromatic nucleus and the amino group.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE:
POLOCAINE (Mepivacaine HCl Injection, USP), is indicated for production of local or regional analgesia and anesthesia by local infiltration, peripheral nerve block techniques, and central neural techniques including epidural and caudal blocks.

The routes of administration and indicated concentrations for mepivacaine are:
 
Local infiltration  0.5% (via dilution) or 1%
peripheral nerve blocks 1% and 2%
epidural block 1%, 1.5%, 2%
caudal block 1%, 1.5%, 2%

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
The dose of any local anesthetic administered varies with the anesthetic procedure, the area to be anesthetized, the vascularity of the tissues, the number of neuronal segments to be blocked, the depth of anesthesia and degree of muscle relaxation required, the duration of anesthesia desired, individual tolerance and the physical condition of the patient. The smallest dose and concentration required to produce the desired result should be administered. Dosages of mepivacaine hydrochloride should be reduced for elderly and debilitated patients and patients with cardiac and/or liver disease. The rapid injection of a large volume of local anesthetic solution should be avoided and fractional doses should be used when feasible.

For specific techniques and procedures, refer to standard textbooks.

The recommended single adult dose (or the total of a series of doses given in one procedure) of mepivacaine hydrochloride for unsedated, healthy, normal-sized individuals should not usually exceed 400 mg. The recommended dosage is based on requirements for the average adult and should be reduced for elderly or debilitated patients.

While maximum doses of 7 mg/kg (550 mg) have been administered without adverse effect, these are not recommended, except in exceptional circumstances and under no circumstances should the administration be repeated at intervals of less than 1½ hours. The total dose for any 24-hour period should not exceed 1,000 mg because of a slow accumulation of the anesthetic or its derivatives or slower than normal metabolic degradation or detoxification with repeat administration (see package insert for CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and PRECAUTIONS).

Pediatric patients tolerate the local anesthetic as well as adults. However, the pediatric dose should be carefully measured as a percentage of the total adult dose based on weight, and should not exceed 5 mg/kg to 6 mg/kg (2.5 mg/lb to 3 mg/lb) in pediatric patients, especially those weighing less than 30 lbs. In pediatric patients under 3 years of age or weighing less than 30 lbs concentrations less than 2% (eg, 0.5% to 1.5%) should be employed.

Unused portions of solutions not containing preservatives, ie, those supplied in single-dose vials, should be discarded following initial use.

This product should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit. Solutions which are discolored or which contain particulate matter should not be administered.

Recommended Concentrations and Doses of Mepivacaine Hydrochloride
Procedure   Concentration   mL Total Dose  mg    Comments  
Cervical,   brachial, intercostal,  pudendal, nerve block   1%   5-40  
50-400    Pudendal block:  one half of totaldose injected each side.
  2% 5-20
100-400    
Transvaginal   block  (paracervical plus pudendal)   1%   up to 30 
(both sides)  

up to 300   (both sides) One half of total   dose injected each side.  See package insert for precautions.
Paracervical   block 1%   up to 20 (both sides)  
up to 200   (both sides)    One half of total   dose injected each side.  This is maximum recommended dose per 90-minute period in obstetrical and non-obstetrical patients.  Inject slowly, 5 minutes between sides. See package insert for precautions.
Caudal and   Epidural block 1%   15-30            
150-300      *Use only single-dose vials which do not  contain a preservative.  
  1.5% 10-25
150-375    

2%   10-20  
200-400     
Infiltration   1%   up to 40  
up to 400    An equivalent amount  of a 0.5% solution (prepared by diluting the 1% solution with Sodium Chloride Injection, USP) may  be used for large areas
Therapeutic   block (pain management) 1%   1-5  
10-50  
  2% 1-5
20-100
Unused portions of solutions not containing preservatives should be discarded.
* Dosage forms listed as POLOCAINE-MPF (Mepivacaine HCl Injection, USP) are single-dose solutions which do not contain a preservative.

CONTRAINDICATIONS:
Mepivacaine is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to it or to any local anesthetic agent of the amide-type or to other components of mepivacaine solutions.

WARNINGS:
LOCAL ANESTHETICS SHOULD ONLY BE EMPLOYED BY CLINICIANS WHO ARE WELL VERSED IN DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY AND OTHER ACUTE EMERGENCIES WHICH MIGHT ARISE FROM THE BLOCK TO BE EMPLOYED, AND THEN ONLY AFTER INSURING THE IMMEDIATE AVAILABILITY OF OXYGEN, OTHER RESUSCITATIVE DRUGS, CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATIVE EQUIPMENT, AND THE PERSONNEL RESOURCES NEEDED FOR PROPER MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC REACTIONS AND RELATED EMERGENCIES. (See also ADVERSE REACTIONS and PRECAUTIONS.) DELAY IN PROPER MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY, UNDERVENTILATION FROM ANY CAUSE, AND/OR ALTERED SENSITIVITY MAY LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACIDOSIS, CARDIAC ARREST AND, POSSIBLY, DEATH.

Local anesthetic solutions containing antimicrobial preservatives (ie, those supplied in multiple-dose vials) should not be used for epidural or caudal anesthesia because safety has not been established with regard to intrathecal injection, either intentionally or inadvertently, of such preservatives.

It is essential that aspiration for blood or cerebrospinal fluid (where applicable) be done prior to injecting any local anesthetic, both the original dose and all subsequent doses, to avoid intravascular or subarachnoid injection. However, a negative aspiration does not ensure against an intravascular or subarachnoid injection.

Reactions resulting in fatality have occurred on rare occasions with the use of local anesthetics.

Mepivacaine with epinephrine or other vasopressors should not be used concomitantly with ergot-type oxytocic drugs, because a severe persistent hypertension may occur. Likewise, solutions of mepivacaine containing a vasoconstrictor, such as epinephrine, should be used with extreme caution in patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) or antidepressants of the triptyline or imipramine types, because severe prolonged hypertension may result.

Local anesthetic procedures should be used with caution when there is inflammation and/or sepsis in the region of the proposed injection.

Mixing or the prior or intercurrent use of any local anesthetic with mepivacaine cannot be recommended because of insufficient data on the clinical use of such mixtures.

DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS:
Single-dose vials and multiple-dose vials of POLOCAINE may be sterilized by autoclaving at 15 pound pressure, 121°C (250°F) for 15 minutes. Solutions of POLOCAINE may be reautoclaved when necessary. Do not administer solutions which are discolored or which contain particulate matter.

THESE SOLUTIONS ARE NOT INTENDED FOR SPINAL ANESTHESIA OR DENTAL USE.

POLOCAINE-MPF (Mepivacaine HCl Injection, USP) without preservatives is available as follows:

Product   No.

NDC No.

Strength Vial Size 
261030  63323-260-30     1% (10 mg/mL)   30 mL single dose vial, packaged individually. 
293030  63323-293-30  1.5% (15 mg/mL)   30 mL single dose vial, packaged individually. 
294020  63323-294-20    2% (20 mg/mL)   20 mL single dose vial, packaged individually. 


POLOCAINE (mepivacaine HCl Injection, USP) with preservatives is available as follows:

Product   No.

NDC No.

Strength Vial Size 
283050  63323-283-50     1% (10 mg/mL)      50 mL multiple dose vial, packaged individually. 
296050  63323-296-50  2% (20 mg/mL)  50 mL multiple dose vial, packaged individually.  
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]; brief exposure up to 40°C (104°F) does not adversely affect the product.


SOURCE:
Package insert data:
APP Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Schaumburg, IL 60173
Rev: 9/2009

Lidocaine (Xylocaine®) without epi: top of page

 AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS FOR INFILTRATION AND NERVE BLOCK

1] Ampul
2] Plastic Multiple-dose Fliptop Vial
3] Glass Teartop Vial

DESCRIPTION
Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution of lidocaine hydrochloride in water for injection for parenteral administration in various concentrations with characteristics as follows:
Concentration 0.5% 1% 1.5% 2%
mg/mL lidocaine HCl (anhyd.) 5 10 15 20
mg/mL sodium chloride 8 7 6.5 6


Multiple-dose vials contain 0.1% of methylparaben added as preservative. May contain sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid for pH adjustment. The pH is 6.5 (5.0 to 7.0). See HOW SUPPLIED section for various sizes and strengths.

Lidocaine is a local anesthetic of the amide type.

Lidocaine Hydrochloride, USP is chemically designated 2-(diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-acetamide monohydrochloride monohydrate, a white powder freely soluble in water.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE:
Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia by infiltration techniques such as percutaneous injection and intravenous regional anesthesia by peripheral nerve block techniques such as brachial plexus and intercostal and by central neural techniques such as lumbar and caudal epidural blocks, when the accepted procedures for these techniques as described in standard textbooks are observed.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
Table 1 (Recommended Dosages) summarizes the recommended volumes and concentrations of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP for various types of anesthetic procedures. The dosages suggested in this table are for normal healthy adults and refer to the use of epinephrine-free solutions. When larger volumes are required only solutions containing epinephrine should be used, except in those cases where vasopressor drugs may be contraindicated.

There have been adverse event reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures. Lidocaine is not approved for this use (see WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

These recommended doses serve only as a guide to the amount of anesthetic required for most routine procedures. The actual volumes and concentrations to be used depend on a number of factors such as type and extent of surgical procedure, depth of anesthesia and degree of muscular relaxation required, duration of anesthesia required, and the physical condition of the patient. In all cases the lowest concentration and smallest dose that will produce the desired result should be given. Dosages should be reduced for children and for elderly and debilitated patients and patients with cardiac and/or liver disease.

The onset of anesthesia, the duration of anesthesia and the degree of muscular relaxation are proportional to the volume and concentration (i.e., total dose) of local anesthetic used. Thus, an increase in volume and concentration of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection will decrease the onset of anesthesia, prolong the duration of anesthesia, provide a greater degree of muscular relaxation and increase the segmental spread of anesthesia. However, increasing the volume and concentration of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection may result in a more profound fall in blood pressure when used in epidural anesthesia. Although the incidence of side effects with lidocaine is quite low, caution should be exercised when employing large volumes and concentrations, since the incidence of side effects is directly proportional to the total dose of local anesthetic agent injected.

For intravenous regional anesthesia, only the 50 mL single-dose vial containing 0.5% Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP should be used.

Epidural Anesthesia
For epidural anesthesia, only the following available specific products of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection by Hospira are recommended:

1%. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 mL single-dose teartop vials

1.5%. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 mL single-dose ampuls

2%. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 mL single-dose ampuls

Although these solutions are intended specifically for epidural anesthesia, they may also be used for infiltration and peripheral nerve block provided they are employed as single dose units. These solutions contain no bacteriostatic agent. In epidural anesthesia, the dosage varies with the number of dermatomes to be anesthetized (generally 2-3 mL of the indicated concentration per dermatome).

Caudal and Lumbar Epidural Block: As a precaution against the adverse experiences sometimes observed following unintentional penetration of the subarachnoid space, a test dose such as 2-3 mL of 1.5% lidocaine hydrochloride should be administered at least 5 minutes prior to injecting the total volume required for a lumbar or caudal epidural block. The test dose should be repeated if the patient is moved in a manner that may have displaced the catheter. Epinephrine, if contained in the test dose (10-15 mcg have been suggested), may serve as a warning of unintentional intravascular injection. If injected into a blood vessel, this amount of epinephrine is likely to produce a transient "epinephrine response" within 45 seconds, consisting of an increase in heart rate and systolic blood pressure, circumoral pallor, palpitations and nervousness in the unsedated patient. The sedated patient may exhibit only a pulse rate increase of 20 or more beats per minute for 15 or more seconds. Patients on beta-blockers may not manifest changes in heart rate, but blood pressure monitoring can detect an evanescent rise in systolic blood pressure. Adequate time should be allowed for onset of anesthesia after administration of each test dose. The rapid injection of a large volume of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection through the catheter should be avoided, and, when feasible, fractional doses should be administered.

In the event of the known injection of a large volume of local anesthetic solutions into the subarachnoid space, after suitable resuscitation and if the catheter is in place, consider attempting the recovery of drug by draining a moderate amount of cerebrospinal fluid (such as 10 mL) through the epidural catheter.

Maximum Recommended Dosages

NOTE: The products accompanying this insert do not contain epinephrine.

Adults: For normal healthy adults, the individual maximum recommended dose of lidocaine HCl with epinephrine should not exceed 7 mg/kg (3.5 mg/lb) of body weight and in general it is recommended that the maximum total dose not exceed 500 mg. When used without epinephrine, the maximum individual dose should not exceed 4.5 mg/kg (2 mg/lb) of body weight and in general it is recommended that the maximum total dose does not exceed 300 mg. For continuous epidural or caudal anesthesia, the maximum recommended dosage should not be administered at intervals of less than 90 minutes. When continuous lumbar or caudal epidural anesthesia is used for non-obstetrical procedures, more drug may be administered if required to produce adequate anesthesia.

The maximum recommended dose per 90 minute period of lidocaine hydrochloride for paracervical block in obstetrical patients and non-obstetrical patients is 200 mg total. One-half of the total dose is usually administered to each side. Inject slowly five minutes between sides. (See also discussion of paracervical block in PRECAUTIONS - package insert).

For intravenous regional anesthesia, the dose administered should not exceed 4 mg/kg in adults.

Children: It is difficult to recommend a maximum dose of any drug for children, since this varies as a function of age and weight. For children over 3 years of age who have a normal lean body mass and normal body development, the maximum dose is determined by the child’s age and weight. For example, in a child of 5 years weighing 50 lbs., the dose of lidocaine HCl should not exceed 75 — 100 mg (1.5 — 2 mg/lb). The use of even more dilute solutions (i.e., 0.25 — 0.5%) and total dosages not to exceed 3 mg/kg (1.4 mg/lb) are recommended for induction of intravenous regional anesthesia in children.

In order to guard against systemic toxicity, the lowest effective concentration and lowest effective dose should be used at all times. In some cases it will be necessary to dilute available concentrations with 0.9% sodium chloride injection in order to obtain the required final concentration.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever the solution and container permit. Solutions that are discolored and/or contain particulate matter should not be used.

Table 1

Recommended Dosages of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP for Various Anesthetic

Procedures in Normal Healthy Adults

 

Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP (without Epinephrine)

Procedure

Conc. (%)

Vol. (mL)

Total Dose (mg)

       

Infiltration

     

Percutaneous

0.5 or 1.0

1-60

5-300

Intravenous Regional

0.5

10-60

50-300

       

Peripheral Nerve Blocks, e.g.

     

Brachial

1.5

15-20

225-300

Dental

2.0

1-5

20-100

Intercostal

1.0

3

30

Paravertebral

1.0

3-5

30-50

Pudendal (each side)

1.0

10

100

Paracervical Obstetrical Analgesia (each side)

1.0

10

100

 

     

Sympathetic Nerve Blocks, e.g.

     

Cervical (stellate ganglion)

1.0

5

50

Lumbar

1.0

5-10

50-100

       

Central Neural Blocks

     

Epidural*

     

Thoracic

1.0

20-30

200-300

Lumbar

     

Analgesia

1.0

25-30

250-300

Anesthesia

1.5

15-20

225-300

 

2.0

10-15

200-300

Caudal

     

Obstetrical Analgesia

1.0

20-30

200-300

Surgical Anesthesia

1.5

15-20

225-300

       
 

*Dose determined by number of dermatomes to be anesthetized (2 to 3 mL/dermatome).


THE ABOVE SUGGESTED CONCENTRATIONS AND VOLUMES SERVE ONLY AS A GUIDE. OTHER VOLUMES AND CONCENTRATIONS MAY BE USED PROVIDED THE TOTAL MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED DOSE IS NOT EXCEEDED.

Sterilization, Storage and Technical Procedures: Disinfecting agents containing heavy metals, which cause release of respective ions (mercury, zinc, copper, etc.) should not be used for skin or mucous membrane disinfection as they have been related to incidence of swelling and edema. When chemical disinfection of multi-dose vials is desired, either isopropyl alcohol (91%) or 70% ethyl alcohol is recommended. Many commercially available brands of rubbing alcohol, as well as solutions of ethyl alcohol not of USP grade, contain denaturants which are injurious to rubber and, therefore, are not to be used. It is recommended that chemical disinfection be accomplished by wiping the vial stopper thoroughly with cotton or gauze that has been moistened with the recommended alcohol just prior to use.
CONTRAINDICATIONS:
Lidocaine is contraindicated in patients with a known history of hypersensitivity to local anesthetics of the amide type.

WARNINGS:
LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTION, FOR INFILTRATION AND NERVE BLOCK, SHOULD BE EMPLOYED ONLY BY CLINICIANS WHO ARE WELL VERSED IN DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY AND OTHER ACUTE EMERGENCIES THAT MIGHT ARISE FROM THE BLOCK TO BE EMPLOYED AND THEN ONLY AFTER ENSURING THE IMMEDIATE AVAILABILITY OF OXYGEN, OTHER RESUSCITATIVE DRUGS, CARDIOPULMONARY EQUIPMENT, AND THE PERSONNEL NEEDED FOR PROPER MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC REACTIONS AND RELATED EMERGENCIES (See also ADVERSE REACTIONS and PRECAUTIONS). DELAY IN PROPER MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY, UNDERVENTILATION FROM ANY CAUSE AND/OR ALTERED SENSITIVITY MAY LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACIDOSIS, CARDIAC ARREST AND, POSSIBLY, DEATH.

Intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures is an unapproved use, and there have been post-marketing reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving such infusions. The majority of reported cases of chondrolysis have involved the shoulder joint; cases of gleno-humeral chondrolysis have been described in pediatric and adult patients following intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics with and without epinephrine for periods of 48 to 72 hours. There is insufficient information to determine whether shorter infusion periods are not associated with these findings. The time of onset of symptoms, such as joint pain, stiffness and loss of motion can be variable, but may begin as early as the 2nd month after surgery. Currently, there is no effective treatment for chondrolysis; patients who experienced chondrolysis have required additional diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and some required arthroplasty or shoulder replacement.

To avoid intravascular injection, aspiration should be performed before the local anesthetic solution is injected. The needle must be repositioned until no return of blood can be elicited by aspiration. Note, however, that the absence of blood in the syringe does not guarantee that intravascular injection has been avoided.

Local anesthetic solutions containing antimicrobial preservatives (e.g., methylparaben) should not be used for epidural or spinal anesthesia because the safety of these agents has not been established with regard to intrathecal injection, either intentional or accidental.


DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS:
Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is supplied as follows:

NDC

Container

Concentration

Size

Total (mg)

Single-dose:

       

0409-4278-01

Glass Teartop Vial

0.5% (5 mg/mL)

50 mL

250

0409-4713-01

Glass Ampul

1% (10 mg/mL)

2 mL (bulk – 400 units)

20

0409-4713-02

Glass Ampul

1% (10 mg/mL)

5 mL

50

0409-4713-05

Glass Ampul

1% (10 mg/mL)

5 mL (bulk – 400 units)

50

0409-4713-20

Glass Ampul

1% (10 mg/mL)

20 mL

200

0409-4713-32

Glass Ampul

1% (10 mg/mL)

2 mL

20

0409-4713-62

Glass Ampul

1% (10 mg/mL)

2 mL (bulk – 800 units)

20

0409-4713-65

Glass Ampul

1% (10 mg/mL)

5 mL (bulk – 800 units)

50

0409-4279-02

Glass Teartop Vial

1% (10 mg/mL)

30 mL

300

0409-4270-01

Sterile Glass Teartop Vial

1% (10 mg/mL)

30 mL

300

0409-4776-01

Glass Ampul

1.5% (15 mg/mL)

20 mL

300

0409-4056-01

Sterile Glass Ampul

1.5% (15 mg/mL)

20 mL

300

0409-4282-01

Glass Ampul

2% (20 mg/mL)

2 mL

40

0409-4282-02

Glass Ampul

2% (20 mg/mL)

10 mL

200

         

Multiple-dose:

       

0409-4275-01

Plastic Fliptop Vial

0.5% (5 mg/mL)

50 mL

250

0409-4276-01

Plastic Fliptop Vial

1% (10 mg/mL)

20 mL

200

0409-4276-02

Plastic Fliptop Vial

1% (10 mg/mL)

50 mL

500

0409-4277-01

Plastic Fliptop Vial

2% (20 mg/mL)

20 mL

400

0409-4277-02

Plastic Fliptop Vial

2% (20 mg/mL)

50 mL

1000


Single-dose products are preservative-free.

Store at 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]

Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP solutions packaged in ampuls and glass teartop vials may be autoclaved one time only. Autoclave at 15 pounds pressure, 121°C (250°F) for 15 minutes. DO NOT AUTOCLAVE PRODUCT IN PLASTIC VIALS.


SOURCE:
Package insert data:
Hospira, Inc., Lake Forest, IL 60045 USA
Revised: February, 2010

Lidocaine HCL (Xylocaine-MPF) Preservative free: top of page

Dosage forms listed as Xylocaine-MPF indicate single dose solutions that are Methyl Paraben Free (MPF).

Xylocaine MPF is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, isotonic solution containing sodium chloride. Xylocaine in multiple dose vials: Each mL also contains 1 mg methylparaben as antiseptic preservative. The pH of these solutions is adjusted to approximately 6.5 (5.0-7.0) with sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid.

Xylocaine MPF with Epinephrine is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, isotonic solution containing sodium chloride. Each mL contains lidocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine, with 0.5 mg sodium metabisulfite as an antioxidant and 0.2 mg citric acid as a stabilizer. Xylocaine with Epinephrine in multiple dose vials: Each mL also contains 1 mg methylparaben as antiseptic preservative. The pH of these solutions is adjusted to approximately 4.5 (3.3-5.5) with sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid. Filled under nitrogen.


INDICATIONS AND USAGE:
Xylocaine (lidocaine HCl) Injections are indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia by infiltration techniques such as percutaneous injection and intravenous regional anesthesia by peripheral nerve block techniques such as brachial plexus and intercostal and by central neural techniques such as lumbar and caudal epidural blocks, when the accepted procedures for these techniques as described in standard textbooks are observed.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
Table 1 (Recommended Dosages) summarizes the recommended volumes and concentrations of Xylocaine Injection for various types of anesthetic procedures. The dosages suggested in this table are for normal healthy adults and refer to the use of epinephrine-free solutions. When larger volumes are required, only solutions containing epinephrine should be used except in those cases where vasopressor drugs may be contraindicated.

These recommended doses serve only as a guide to the amount of anesthetic required for most routine procedures. The actual volumes and concentrations to be used depend on a number of factors such as type and extent of surgical procedure, depth of anesthesia and degree of muscular relaxation required, duration of anesthesia required, and the physical condition of the patient. In all cases the lowest concentration and smallest dose that will produce the desired result should be given. Dosages should be reduced for children and for the elderly and debilitated patients and patients with cardiac and/or liver disease.

The onset of anesthesia, the duration of anesthesia and the degree of muscular relaxation are proportional to the volume and concentration (ie, total dose) of local anesthetic used. Thus, an increase in volume and concentration of Xylocaine Injection will decrease the onset of anesthesia, prolong the duration of anesthesia, provide a greater degree of muscular relaxation and increase the segmental spread of anesthesia. However, increasing the volume and concentration of Xylocaine Injection may result in a more profound fall in blood pressure when used in epidural anesthesia. Although the incidence of side effects with lidocaine HCl is quite low, caution should be exercised when employing large volumes and concentrations, since the incidence of side effects is directly proportional to the total dose of local anesthetic agent injected.

For intravenous regional anesthesia, only the 50 mL single dose vial containing Xylocaine (lidocaine HCl) 0.5% Injection should be used.

Epidural Anesthesia
For epidural anesthesia, only the following dosage forms of Xylocaine Injection are recommended:

1% without epinephrine

10 mL Polyamp DuoFit

1% without epinephrine

30 mL single dose solutions

1% with epinephrine 1:200,000

30 mL single dose solutions

   

1.5% without epinephrine

10 mL Polyamp DuoFit

1.5% without epinephrine

20 mL Polyamp DuoFit

   

1.5% with epinephrine 1:200,000

30 ml ampules, 30 mL single dose solutions

2% without epinephrine

10 mL Polyamp DuoFit

2% with epinephrine 1:200,000

20 mL ampules, 20 mL single dose solutions



Although these solutions are intended specifically for epidural anesthesia, they may also be used for infiltration and peripheral nerve block, provided they are employed as single dose units. These solutions contain no bacteriostatic agent.

In epidural anesthesia, the dosage varies with the number of dermatomes to be anesthetized (generally 2-3 mL of the indicated concentration per dermatome).

Caudal and Lumbar Epidural Block: As a precaution against the adverse experience sometimes observed following unintentional penetration of the subarachnoid space, a test dose such as 2-3 mL of 1.5% lidocaine HCl should be administered at least 5 minutes prior to injecting the total volume required for a lumbar or caudal epidural block. The test dose should be repeated if the patient is moved in a manner that may have displaced the catheter. Epinephrine, if contained in the test dose, (10-15 µg have been suggested), may serve as a warning of unintentional intravascular injection. If injected into a blood vessel, this amount of epinephrine is likely to produce a transient “epinephrine response” within 45 seconds, consisting of an increase in heart rate and systolic blood pressure, circumoral pallor, palpitations and nervousness in the unsedated patient. The sedated patient may exhibit only a pulse rate increase of 20 or more beats per minute for 15 or more seconds. Patients on beta blockers may not manifest changes in heart rate, but blood pressure monitoring can detect an evanescent rise in systolic blood pressure. Adequate time should be allowed for onset of anesthesia after administration of each test dose. The rapid injection of a large volume of Xylocaine Injection through the catheter should be avoided, and, when feasible, fractional doses should be administered.

In the event of the known injection of a large volume of local anesthetic solution into the subarachnoid space, after suitable resuscitation and if the catheter is in place, consider attempting the recovery of drug by draining a moderate amount of cerebrospinal fluid (such as 10 mL) through the epidural catheter.

MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED DOSAGES

Adults
For normal healthy adults, the individual maximum recommended dose of lidocaine HCl with epinephrine should not exceed 7 mg/kg (3.5 mg/lb) of body weight, and in general it is recommended that the maximum total dose not exceed 500 mg. When used without epinephrine the maximum individual dose should not exceed 4.5 mg/kg (2 mg/lb) of body weight, and in general it is recommended that the maximum total dose does not exceed 300 mg. For continuous epidural or caudal anesthesia, the maximum recommended dosage should not be administered at intervals of less than 90 minutes. When continuous lumbar or caudal epidural anesthesia is used for non-obstetrical procedures, more drug may be administered if required to produce adequate anesthesia.

The maximum recommended dose per 90 minute period of lidocaine hydrochloride for paracervical block in obstetrical patients and non-obstetrical patients is 200 mg total. One half of the total dose is usually administered to each side. Inject slowly, five minutes between sides. (See also discussion of paracervical block in PRECAUTIONS.)

For intravenous regional anesthesia, the dose administered should not exceed 4 mg/kg in adults.

Children
It is difficult to recommend a maximum dose of any drug for children, since this varies as a function of age and weight. For children over 3 years of age who have a normal lean body mass and normal body development, the maximum dose is determined by the child’s age and weight. For example, in a child of 5 years weighing 50 lbs the dose of lidocaine HCl should not exceed 75-100 mg (1.5-2 mg/lb). The use of even more dilute solutions (ie, 0.25-0.5%) and total dosages not to exceed 3 mg/kg (1.4 mg/lb) are recommended for induction of intravenous regional anesthesia in children.

In order to guard against systemic toxicity, the lowest effective concentration and lowest effective dose should be used at all times. In some cases it will be necessary to dilute available concentrations with 0.9% sodium chloride injection in order to obtain the required final concentration.

NOTE: Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever the solution and container permit. The Injection is not to be used if its color is pinkish or darker than slightly yellow or if it contains a precipitate.

Table 1 Recommended Dosages

Procedure

Xylocaine (lidocaine hydrochloride) Injection (without epinephrine)

Conc (%)

Vol (mL)

Total Dose (mg)

 

Infiltration

     

Percutaneous

0.5 or 1

1-60

5-300

Intravenous regional

0.5

10-60

50-300

       

Peripheral Nerve Blocks, eg,

     

Brachial

1.5

15-20

225-300

Dental

2

1-5

20-100

Intercostal

1

3

30

Paravertebral

1

3-5

30-50

Pudendal (each side)

1

10

100

Paracervical Obstetrical analgesia (each side)

1

10

100

       

Sympathetic nerve blocks, eg,

     

Cervical (stellate ganglion)

1

5

50

Lumbar

1

5-10

50-100

       

Central Neural Blocks
Epidural*

     

Thoracic

1

20–30

200–300

Lumbar

 

 

 

Analgesia

1

25–30

250–300

Anesthesia

1–5

2

15–20

10–15

225–300

200–300

       

Caudal

   

 

Obstetrical analgesia

1

20–30

200–300

Surgical anesthesia

1.5

15–20

225–300

*Dose determined by number of dermatomes to be anesthetized (2-3 mL/dermatome).


THE ABOVE SUGGESTED CONCENTRATIONS AND VOLUMES SERVE ONLY AS A GUIDE. OTHER VOLUMES AND CONCENTRATIONS MAY BE USED PROVIDED THE TOTAL MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED DOSE IS NOT EXCEEDED.

STERILIZATION, STORAGE AND TECHNICAL PROCEDURES
Disinfecting agents containing heavy metals, which cause release of respective ions (mercury, zinc, copper, etc.) should not be used for skin or mucous membrane disinfection as they have been related to incidents of swelling and edema. When chemical disinfection of multi-dose vials is desired, either isopropyl alcohol (91%) or ethyl alcohol (70%) is recommended. Many commercially available brands of rubbing alcohol, as well as solutions of ethyl alcohol not of USP grade, contain denaturants which are injurious to rubber and therefore are not to be used.

Dosage forms listed as Xylocaine-MPF indicate single dose solutions that are Methyl Paraben Free (MPF).


CONTRAINDICATIONS:
Lidocaine Hydrochloride- Xylocaine-MPFLidocaine HCl is contraindicated in patients with a known history of hypersensitivity to local anesthetics of the amide type.

WARNINGS:
XYLOCAINE INJECTIONS FOR INFILTRATION AND NERVE BLOCK SHOULD BE EMPLOYED ONLY BY CLINICIANS WHO ARE WELL VERSED IN DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY AND OTHER ACUTE EMERGENCIES THAT MIGHT ARISE FROM THE BLOCK TO BE EMPLOYED AND THEN ONLY AFTER ENSURING THE IMMEDIATE AVAILABILITY OF OXYGEN, OTHER RESUSCITATIVE DRUGS, CARDIOPULMONARY EQUIPMENT AND THE PERSONNEL NEEDED FOR PROPER MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC REACTIONS AND RELATED EMERGENCIES. (See also ADVERSE REACTIONS and PRECAUTIONS.) DELAY IN PROPER MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY, UNDERVENTILATION FROM ANY CAUSE AND/OR ALTERED SENSITIVITY MAY LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACIDOSIS, CARDIAC ARREST AND, POSSIBLY, DEATH.

To avoid intravascular injection, aspiration should be performed before the local anesthetic solution is injected. The needle must be repositioned until no return of blood can be elicited by aspiration. Note, however, that the absence of blood in the syringe does not guarantee that intravascular injection has been avoided.

Local anesthetic solutions containing antimicrobial preservatives, (eg, methylparaben) should not be used for epidural or spinal anesthesia because the safety of these agents has not been established with regard to intrathecal injection, either intentional or accidental.

Xylocaine with epinephrine solutions contain sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in non-asthmatic people.


DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS:

Xylocaine-MPF
    Ampules (mL) Polyamp DuoFit™ (mL)

Xylocaine (lidocaine HCl) Concentration

Epinephrine Dilution (if present)

2

5

10

20

30

10

20

1%

 

X

X

 

 

X

X

 

1%

1:200,000

 

 

 

 

X

 

 

1.5%

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

X

1.5%

1:200,000

 

X

 

 

X

 

 

2%

 

X

 

 

 

 

X

 

2%

1:200,000

 

 

 

X

 

 

 

 

Xylocaine-MPF
Single Dose Vials (mL)

Xylocaine (lidocaine HCl) Concentration

Epinephrine Dilution (if present)

2

5

10

20

30

50

0.5%

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

1%

 

X

X

 

 

X

 

1%

1:200,000

 

 

X

 

X

 

1.5%

 

 

X

 

 

 

 

1.5%

1:200,000

 

 

X

 

X

 

2%

 

X

X

 

 

 

 

2%

1:200,000

 

 

X

X

 

 



Xylocaine
Multiple Dose Vials (mL)

Xylocaine (lidocaine HCl) Concentration

Epinephrine Dilution (if present)

10

20

50

0.5%

 

 

 

X

0.5%

1:200,000

 

 

X

1%

 

X

X

X

1%

1:100,000

X

X

X

2%

 

X

X

X

2%

1:100,000

 

X

X



All solutions should be stored at room temperature, approximately 25°C (77°F). Protect from light.

SOURCE:
Package insert data:
©AstraZeneca 2001
AstraZeneca LP, Wilmington, DE 19850
Rev: 01/2007

Lidocaine  - Xylocaine® with epinephrine: top of page

DESCRIPTION
Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution of lidocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine in water for injection for parenteral administration in various concentrations with characteristics as follows:
 
Concentration Lidocaine HCl Epinephrine Lidocaine HCl
(anhyd.) mg/mL
Epinephrine
mcg/mL
Sodium Chloride
mg/mL
0.5% 1:200,000 5 5 8
1% 1:200,000 10 5 7
1.5% 1:200,000 15 5 6.5
2% 1:200,000 20 5 6
1% 1:100,000 10 10 7
2% 1:100,000 20 10 6
   

Sodium metabisulfite 0.5 mg/mL and citric acid, anhydrous 0.2 mg/mL added as stabilizers. The headspace of Lists 1209, and 3179 are carbon dioxide gassed and Lists 3177, 3178, 3181, 3182 and 3183 are nitrogen gassed. May contain sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid to adjust pH; pH is 4.5 (3.3 to 5.5). See HOW SUPPLIED section for various sizes and strengths.

Multiple-dose vials contain methylparaben 1 mg/mL added as preservative.

Single-dose ampuls and vials contain no bacteriostat or antimicrobial agent. Discard unused portion.
Lidocaine is a local anesthetic of the amide type.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE:
Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection, USP is indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia by infiltration techniques such as percutaneous injection, by peripheral nerve block techniques such as brachial plexus and intercostal and by central neural techniques such as lumbar and caudal epidural blocks, when the accepted procedures for these techniques as described in standard textbooks are observed.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
Table I (Recommended Dosages) summarizes the recommended volumes and concentrations of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP for various types of anesthetic procedures. The dosages suggested in this table are for normal healthy adults and refer to the use of epinephrine-free solutions. When larger volumes are required only solutions containing epinephrine should be used, except in those cases where vasopressor drugs may be contraindicated.

There have been adverse event reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures. Lidocaine is not approved for this use (see WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

These recommended doses serve only as a guide to the amount of anesthetic required for most routine procedures. The actual volumes and concentrations to be used depend on a number of factors such as type and extent of surgical procedure, depth of anesthesia and degree of muscular relaxation required, duration of anesthesia required, and the physical condition of the patient. In all cases the lowest concentration and smallest dose that will produce the desired result should be given. Dosages should be reduced for children and for elderly and debilitated patients and patients with cardiac and/or liver disease.

The onset of anesthesia, the duration of anesthesia and the degree of muscular relaxation are proportional to the volume and concentration (i.e., total dose) of local anesthetic used. Thus, an increase in volume and concentration of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP will decrease the onset of anesthesia, prolong the duration of anesthesia, provide a greater degree of muscular relaxation and increase the segmental spread of anesthesia. However, increasing the volume and concentration of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP may result in a more profound fall in blood pressure when used in epidural anesthesia. Although the incidence of side effects with lidocaine is quite low, caution should be exercised when employing large volumes and concentrations, since the incidence of side effects is directly proportional to the total dose of local anesthetic agent injected.

Epidural Anesthesia
For an epidural test dose, only the following available specific product of Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection, USP by Hospira is recommended:

1.5% with epinephrine 1:200,000.................... 5 mL single-dose ampuls

For epidural anesthesia, only the following available specific products of Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection, USP by Hospira are recommended:

1% with epinephrine 1:200,000............................ 30 mL single-dose ampuls

30 mL single-dose vials

1.5% with epinephrine 1:200,000.......................... 30 mL single-dose ampuls

30 mL single-dose vials

2% with epinephrine 1:200,000................................ 20 mL single-dose vials

Although these solutions are intended specifically for epidural anesthesia, they may also be used for infiltration and peripheral nerve block provided they are employed as single-dose units. These solutions contain no bacteriostatic agent.

In epidural anesthesia, the dosage varies with the number of dermatomes to be anesthetized (generally 2-3 mL of the indicated concentration per dermatome).

Caudal and Lumbar Epidural Block: As a precaution against the adverse experiences sometimes observed following unintentional penetration of the subarachnoid space, a test dose such as 2-3 mL of 1.5% lidocaine injection should be administered at least 5 minutes prior to injecting the total volume required for a lumbar or caudal epidural block. The test dose should be repeated if the patient is moved in a manner that may have displaced the catheter. Epinephrine, if contained in the test dose (10-15 µg have been suggested), may serve as a warning of unintentional intravascular injection. If injected into a blood vessel, this amount of epinephrine is likely to produce a transient “epinephrine response” within 45 seconds, consisting of an increase in heart rate and systolic blood pressure, circumoral pallor, palpitations and nervousness in the unsedated patient. The sedated patient may exhibit only a pulse rate increase of 20 or more beats per minute for 15 or more seconds. Patients on beta-blockers may not manifest changes in heart rate, but blood pressure monitoring can detect an evanescent rise in systolic blood pressure. Adequate time should be allowed for onset of anesthesia after administration of each test dose. The rapid injection of a large volume of Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection, USP through the catheter should be avoided, and, when feasible, fractional doses should be administered.

In the event of the known injection of a large volume of local anesthetic solution into the subarachnoid space, after suitable resuscitation and if the catheter is in place, consider attempting the recovery of drug by draining a moderate amount of cerebrospinal fluid (such as 10 mL) through the epidural catheter.

Maximum Recommended Dosages
Adults: For normal healthy adults, the individual maximum dose of Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection, USP should not exceed 7 mg/kg (3.5 mg/lb) of body weight and in general it is recommended that the maximum total dose not exceed 500 mg. When used without epinephrine, the maximum individual dose should not exceed 4.5 mg/kg (2 mg per lb) of body weight, and in general it is recommended that the maximum total dose does not exceed 300 mg. For continuous epidural or caudal anesthesia, the maximum recommended dosage should not be administered at intervals of less than 90 minutes. When continuous lumbar or caudal epidural anesthesia is used for non-obstetrical procedures, more drug may be administered if required to produce adequate anesthesia.

The maximum recommended dose per 90 minute period of lidocaine hydrochloride for paracervical block in obstetrical patients and non-obstetrical patients is 200 mg total. One half of the total dose is usually administered to each side. Inject slowly five minutes between sides. (See also discussion of paracervical block in PRECAUTIONS (package insert)).

Pediatric Population: It is difficult to recommend a maximum dose of any drug for pediatric patients, since this varies as a function of age and weight. For pediatric patients over 3 years of age who have a normal lean body mass and normal body development, the maximum dose is determined by the child’s age and weight. For example, in a child of 5 years weighing 50 lbs., the dose of lidocaine HCl should not exceed 75-100 mg (1.5-2 mg/lb).

In order to guard against systemic toxicity, the lowest effective concentration and lowest effective dose should be used at all times. In some cases it will be necessary to dilute available concentrations with 0.9% sodium chloride injection in order to obtain the required final concentration.

FOR EPIDURAL USE ONLY.

Note: Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever the solution and container permit. Do not use the injection if its color is pinkish or darker than slightly yellow or if it contains a precipitate.

Table I Recommended Dosages of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP for Various Anesthetic Procedures in Normal Healthy Adults

Procedure

Xylocaine (lidocaine hydrochloride) Injection (without epinephrine)

Conc (%)

Vol (mL)

Total Dose (mg)

 

Infiltration

     

Percutaneous

0.5 or 1

1-60

5-300

Intravenous regional

0.5

10-60

50-300

       

Peripheral Nerve Blocks, eg,

     

Brachial

1.5

15-20

225-300

Dental

2

1-5

20-100

Intercostal

1

3

30

Paravertebral

1

3-5

30-50

Pudendal (each side)

1

10

100

Paracervical Obstetrical analgesia (each side)

1

10

100

       

Sympathetic nerve blocks, eg,

     

Cervical (stellate ganglion)

1

5

50

Lumbar

1

5-10

50-100

       

Central Neural Blocks
Epidural*

     

Thoracic

1

20–30

200–300

Lumbar

 

 

 

Analgesia

1

25–30

250–300

Anesthesia

1–5

2

15–20

10–15

225–300

200–300

       

Caudal

   

 

Obstetrical analgesia

1

20–30

200–300

Surgical anesthesia

1.5

15–20

225–300

*Dose determined by number of dermatomes to be anesthetized (2-3 mL/dermatome).

THE ABOVE SUGGESTED CONCENTRATIONS AND VOLUMES SERVE ONLY AS A GUIDE. OTHER VOLUMES AND CONCENTRATIONS MAY BE USED PROVIDED THE TOTAL MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED DOSE IS NOT EXCEEDED.

Sterilization, Storage and Technical Procedures: Disinfecting agents containing heavy metals, which cause release of respective ions (mercury, zinc, copper, etc.) should not be used for skin or mucous membrane disinfection as they have been related to incidence of swelling and edema. When chemical disinfection of multi-dose vials is desired, either isopropyl alcohol (91%) or 70% ethyl alcohol is recommended. Many commercially available brands of rubbing alcohol, as well as solutions of ethyl alcohol not of USP grade, contain denaturants which are injurious to rubber and, therefore, are not to be used. It is recommended that chemical disinfection be accomplished by wiping the vial stopper or ampul thoroughly with cotton or gauze that has been moistened with the recommended alcohol just prior to use.

Do not autoclave.

CONTRAINDICATIONS:
Lidocaine is contraindicated in patients with a known history of hypersensitivity to local anesthetics of the amide type.

WARNINGS:
LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND EPINEPHRINE INJECTION, USP FOR INFILTRATION AND NERVE BLOCK SHOULD BE EMPLOYED ONLY BY CLINICIANS WHO ARE WELL VERSED IN DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY AND OTHER ACUTE EMERGENCIES THAT MIGHT ARISE FROM THE BLOCK TO BE EMPLOYED AND THEN ONLY AFTER ENSURING THE IMMEDIATE AVAILABILITY OF OXYGEN, OTHER RESUSCITATIVE DRUGS, CARDIOPULMONARY EQUIPMENT, AND THE PERSONNEL NEEDED FOR PROPER MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC REACTIONS AND RELATED EMERGENCIES (See also ADVERSE REACTIONS and PRECAUTIONS). DELAY IN PROPER MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY, UNDERVENTILATION FROM ANY CAUSE AND/OR ALTERED SENSITIVITY MAY LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACIDOSIS, CARDIAC ARREST AND, POSSIBLY, DEATH.

Intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures is an unapproved use, and there have been post-marketing reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving such infusions. The majority of reported cases of chondrolysis have involved the shoulder joint; cases of gleno-humeral chondrolysis have been described in pediatric and adult patients following intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics with and without epinephrine for periods of 48 to 72 hours. There is insufficient information to determine whether shorter infusion periods are not associated with these findings. The time of onset of symptoms, such as joint pain, stiffness and loss of motion can be variable, but may begin as early as the 2nd month after surgery. Currently, there is no effective treatment for chondrolysis; patients who experienced chondrolysis have required additional diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and some required arthroplasty or shoulder replacement.

To avoid intravascular injection, aspiration should be performed before the local anesthetic solution is injected. The needle must be repositioned until no return of blood can be elicited by aspiration. Note, however, that the absence of blood in the syringe does not guarantee that intravascular injection has been avoided.

Local anesthetic solutions containing antimicrobial preservatives (e.g., methylparaben) should not be used for epidural or spinal anesthesia because the safety of these agents has not been established with regard to intrathecal injection, either intentional or accidental.

Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic people.

DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS:
Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection, USP is supplied in single-dose and multiple-dose containers as shown below:

NDC No. Container Size Drug Concentration
Lidocaine HCl Epinephrine
Single-dose
0409-3181-01 Fliptop Vial  30 mL 1.5% 1:200,000
0409-3183-01 Fliptop Vial  20 mL 2% 1:200,000
Epidural Test Dose (single-dose)
0409-1209-01 Ampul  5 mL 1.5% 1:200,000
0409-1209-05 Ampul  5 mL 1.5% 1:200,000
0409-1209-65 Ampul  5 mL 1.5% 1:200,000
Multiple-dose
0409-3177-01 Fliptop Vial  50 mL 0.5% 1:200,000
0409-3178-01 Fliptop Vial  20 mL 1% 1:100,000
0409-3178-02 Fliptop Vial  30 mL 1% 1:100,000
0409-3178-03 Fliptop Vial  50 mL 1% 1:100,000
0409-3182-01 Fliptop Vial  20 mL 2% 1:100,000
0409-3182-02 Fliptop Vial  30 mL 2% 1:100,000
0409-3182-03 Fliptop Vial  50 mL 2% 1:100,000
 
Store at 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.] Protect from light.


SOURCE::
Package insert data:
Hospira, Inc., Lake Forest, IL 60045 USA
Revised: March, 2010

Ropivacaine (Naropin)®: top of page

DESCRIPTION:
Naropin® Injection contains ropivacaine HCl, which is a member of the amino amide class of local anesthetics. Naropin Injection is a sterile, isotonic solution that contains the enantiomerically pure drug substance, sodium chloride for isotonicity and Water for Injection. Sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid may be used for pH adjustment. It is administered parenterally.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE:
Naropin is indicated for the production of local or regional anesthesia for surgery and for acute pain management.
Surgical Anesthesia: epidural block for surgery including cesarean section; major nerve block; local infiltration
Acute Pain Management: epidural continuous infusion or intermittent bolus, eg, postoperative or labor; local infiltration

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
The rapid injection of a large volume of local anesthetic solution should be avoided and fractional (incremental) doses should always be used. The smallest dose and concentration required to produce the desired result should be administered.

The dose of any local anesthetic administered varies with the anesthetic procedure, the area to be anesthetized, the vascularity of the tissues, the number of neuronal segments to be blocked, the depth of anesthesia and degree of muscle relaxation required, the duration of anesthesia desired, individual tolerance, and the physical condition of the patient. Patients in poor general condition due to aging or other compromising factors such as partial or complete heart conduction block, advanced liver disease or severe renal dysfunction require special attention although regional anesthesia is frequently indicated in these patients. To reduce the risk of potentially serious adverse reactions, attempts should be made to optimize the patient's condition before major blocks are performed, and the dosage should be adjusted accordingly.

Use an adequate test dose (3 to 5 mL of a short acting local anesthetic solution containing epinephrine) prior to induction of complete block. This test dose should be repeated if the patient is moved in such a fashion as to have displaced the epidural catheter. Allow adequate time for onset of anesthesia following administration of each test dose.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Solutions which are discolored or which contain particulate matter should not be administered.

Table 7 Dosage Recommendations


  Conc. Volume Dose Onset Duration
  mg/mL (%) mL mg min hours
SURGICAL ANESTHESIA
Lumbar Epidural 5 (0.5%) 15-30 75-150 15-30 2-4
Administration 7.5 (0.75%) 15-25 113-188 10-20 3-5
Surgery 10 (1%) 15-20 150-200 10-20 4-6
Lumbar Epidural 5 (0.5%) 20-30 100-150 15-25 2-4
Administration 7.5 (0.75%) 15-20 113-150 10-20 3-5
Cesarean Section            
Thoracic Epidural 5 (0.5%) 5-15 25-75 10-20 n/a*  
Administration 7.5 (0.75%) 5-15 38-113 10-20 n/a*  
Surgery            
Major Nerve Block†   5 (0.5%) 35-50 175-250 15-30 5-8
(eg, brachial plexus block) 7.5 (0.75%) 10-40 75-300 10-25 6-10
Field Block 5 (0.5%) 1-40 5-200 1-15 2-6

(eg, minor nerve blocks and infiltration)

           
LABOR PAIN MANAGEMENT
Lumbar Epidural Administration            
Initial Dose 2 (0.2%) 10-20 20-40 10-15 0.5-1.5

Continuous infusion‡  

2 (0.2%)

6-14 mL/h

12-28 mg/h

n/a*   n/a*  

Incremental injections (top-up)‡

2 (0.2%)

10-15 mL/h

20-30 mg/h

n/a*    n/a* 
POSTOPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT 
Lumbar Epidural Administration 

Continuous infusion§   

(0.2%) 

6-14 mL/h  

12-28 mg/h 

n/a*     n/a*    

Thoracic Epidural Administration 

(0.2%) 

6-14 mL/h 

12-28 mg/h 

n/a*     n/a*   
Continuous infusion§            
Infiltration  2 (0.2%)  1-100  2-200  1-5  2-6 
(eg, minor nerve block)   5  (0.5%)  1-40  5-200  1-5  2-6 

* = Not Applicable
† = The dose for a major nerve block must be adjusted according to site of administration and patient status. Supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks may be associated with a higher frequency of serious adverse reactions, regardless of the local anesthetic used.

‡ = Median dose of 21 mg per hour was administered by continuous infusion or by incremental injections (top-ups) over a median delivery time of 5.5 hours.

§ = Cumulative doses up to 770 mg of Naropin over 24 hours (intraoperative block plus postoperative infusion); Continuous epidural infusion at rates up to 28 mg per hour for 72 hours have been well tolerated in adults, ie, 2016 mg plus surgical dose of approximately 100-150 mg as top-up.


The doses in the table are those considered to be necessary to produce a successful block and should be regarded as guidelines for use in adults. Individual variations in onset and duration occur. The figures reflect the expected average dose range needed. For other local anesthetic techniques standard current textbooks should be consulted.

When prolonged blocks are used, either through continuous infusion or through repeated bolus administration, the risks of reaching a toxic plasma concentration or inducing local neural injury must be considered. Experience to date indicates that a cumulative dose of up to 770 mg Naropin administered over 24 hours is well tolerated in adults when used for postoperative pain management: ie, 2016 mg. Caution should be exercised when administering Naropin for prolonged periods of time, eg, > 70 hours in debilitated patients.

For treatment of postoperative pain, the following technique can be recommended: If regional anesthesia was not used intraoperatively, then an initial epidural block with 5 to 7 mL Naropin is induced via an epidural catheter. Analgesia is maintained with an infusion of Naropin, 2 mg/mL (0.2%). Clinical studies have demonstrated that infusion rates of 6 to 14 mL (12 to 28 mg) per hour provide adequate analgesia with nonprogressive motor block. With this technique a significant reduction in the need for opioids was demonstrated. Clinical experience supports the use of Naropin epidural infusions for up to 72 hours.

CONTRAINDICATIONS:
Naropin is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to ropivacaine or to any local anesthetic agent of the amide type.


DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS:
Naropin (ropivacaine HCl) Injection is supplied as follows:

Product No. 

NDC No.

Strength Size

NP278827

63323-288-27

1% (10 mg/mL)

20 mL polyamp packaged in fives.

NP278637

63323-286-37

0.5% (5 mg/mL)

30 mL single dose vial packaged individually.

NP278567

63323-285-67

0.2% (2 mg/mL)

100 mL infusion bottle packaged individually.

The solubility of ropivacaine is limited at pH above 6. Thus, care must be taken as precipitation may occur if Naropin is mixed with alkaline solutions.

Disinfecting agents containing heavy metals, which cause release of respective ions (mercury, zinc, copper, etc.) should not be used for skin or mucous membrane disinfection since they have been related to incidents of swelling and edema.
When chemical disinfection of the container surface is desired, either isopropyl alcohol (91%) or ethyl alcohol (70%) is recommended. It is recommended that chemical disinfection be accomplished by wiping the ampule or vial stopper thoroughly with cotton or gauze that has been moistened with the recommended alcohol just prior to use. When a container is required to have a sterile outside, a Sterile-Pak should be chosen. Glass containers may, as an alternative, be autoclaved once. Stability has been demonstrated using a targeted F0 of 7 minutes at 121°C.

Solutions should be stored at 20º to 25°C (68º to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Vial stoppers do not contain natural rubber latex.

These products are intended for single use and are free from preservatives. Any solution remaining from an opened container should be discarded promptly. In addition, continuous infusion bottles should not be left in place for more than 24 hours.

SOURCE:
Package insert data:
NAROPIN is a trademark of APP Pharmaceuticals, LLC.

Distributed by:
Novation, the supply company of VHA and UHC, and NOVAPLUS are trademarks of Novation, LLC.

451113/Issued: April 2009

Benzocaine: top of page

Available in multiple dosage forms: gel, ointment, liquid, cream

Allergy alert
Do not use this product if you have a history of allergy to local anesthetics, such as procaine, butacaine, benzocaine, or other “caine” anesthetics due to the possibility of anaphylactic shock.

Active Ingredient (in each gram)
Benzocaine 0.2% to 20.0% (w/w) depending on site of application and formulation.

Depending on formulation, may have multiple uses:
-------------------------
Creams, sprays, etc may be indicated for the following:
For Temporary Relief of Pain and Itching associated with minor burns scrapes and insect bites.
-------------------------
Gel:
For the temporary relief of minor pain and sore mouth associated with toothache, minor dental procedures and irritations from dentures or orthodontic appliances.

When using this product
Do not use for more than 7 days unless directed by a dentist or doctor. If sore mouth symptoms do not improve in 7 days; if irritation, pain or redness persists or worsens; or if swelling, rash, fever or other allergic reaction develops, see your doctor or dentist promptly. Do not exceed recommended dosage.
-------------------------

SOURCE:
Package insert data

Dibucaine: top of page

DIBUCAINE cream
Dibucaine 1%...............Hemorrhoidal/Local analgesic ointment
Uses temporarily relieves pain and itching due to:

- hemorrhoids or other anorectal disorders - sunburn - minor burns - minor cuts
- scrapes - insect bites - minor skin irritation

Keep out of reach of children. If swallowed, get medical help or contact
a Poison Control Center right away.

Uses temporarily relieves pain and itching due to:
- hemorrhoids or other anorectal disorders - sunburn - minor burns - minor cuts
- scrapes - insect bites - minor skin irritation


DIBUCAINE ointment
Dibucaine 1%

Purpose: Topical Anesthetic

Uses:
for temporary relief of pain and itching associated with:
sunburn
minor burns
hemorrhoids
cuts
scratches
insect bites
stings

Warnings:
For external use only
Do not use in the eyes
Stop use and ask a doctor if the condition persists or if rash or irritation develops
you have rectal bleeding

Keep out of reach of children.
If swallowed, get medical help or contact a Poison Control Center right away.

Directions:
not for prolonged use
adults should not use more than the tube in 24 hours or 1/4 tube for child
apply to affected area 3 or 4 times daily
cover with light dressing, if necessary

SOURCE:
Package insert data:
more Career Center image description
Medical Calculators - A thru Z
Lab Values - A thru Z