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Lincosamides (Clindamycin)

Disclaimer - Please see package insert if applicable for additional information. The authors make no claims of the accuracy of the information contained herein; and these suggested doses are not a substitute for clinical judgment. Neither GlobalRPh Inc. nor any other party involved in the preparation of this program shall be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting in whole or part from any user's use of or reliance upon this material. PLEASE READ THE DISCLAIMER CAREFULLY BEFORE ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE. BY ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE, YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS SET FORTH IN THE DISCLAIMER.   Read the disclaimer   |   <BACK

Lincosamides

Background:    
Lincosamides prevent bacteria replicating by interfering with the synthesis of proteins. They bind to the 23s portion of the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomes and cause premature dissociation of the peptidyl-tRNA from the ribosome. Lincosamides do not interfere with protein synthesis in human cells (or those of other eukaryotes) because human ribosomes are structurally different from those of bacteria.    The first lincosamide to be discovered is lincomycin, isolated from Streptomyces lincolnensis in a soil sample from Lincoln, Nebraska (hence the bacterial name).

Lincomycin has been superseded by clindamycin, which exhibits improved antibacterial activity. Clindamycin also exhibits some activity against parasitic protozoa, and has been used in toxoplasmosis and malaria.

They are normally used to treat staphylococci and streptococci, and have proved useful in treating Bacteroides fragilis and some other anaerobes. They are used in the treatment of Toxic Shock Syndrome and thought to directly block the M protein production that leads to the severe inflammatory response.   Lincosamide antibiotics are one of the classes of antibiotics most associated with pseudomembranous colitis caused by C. difficile. 

  [Source: direct quotes - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lincosamides]
Clindamycin (Cleocin ®) -- Infectious Disease -ALL Agents (INDEX)
     

Antimicrobials - Infectious Disease

Aminoglycosides Ansamycins/Rifamycins Antibiotics (Other)
Anti- Fungals Anti-Herpetic Agents Anti-Influenza Agents
Anti-Malarials Carbapenems Cephalosporins
Fluoroquinolones Glycopeptides HIV (anti) Agents
Lincosamides Lipopeptides Macrolides
Monobactams Oxazolidones Penicillins
Sulfonamide antibiotics Tetracyclines Tuberculosis (anti) agents
     

Clindamycin (Cleocin ®): top of page

 WARNING
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

Because CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE therapy has been associated with severe colitis which may end fatally, it should be reserved for serious infections where less toxic antimicrobial agents are inappropriate, as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section. It should not be used in patients with nonbacterial infections such as most upper respiratory tract infections. C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Microbiology
:
Clindamycin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome. It has activity against Gram-positive aerobes and anaerobes, as well as some Gram-negative anaerobes. Clindamycin is bacteriostatic. Cross-resistance between clindamycin and lincomycin is complete. Antagonism in vitro has been demonstrated between clindamycin and erythromycin. Clindamycin inducible resistance has been identified in macrolide-resistant staphylococci and beta-hemolytic streptococci. Macrolide-resistant isolates of these organisms should be screened for clindamycin inducible resistance using the D-zone test.

Clindamycin has been shown to be active against most of the isolates of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections, as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.

Gram-positive Aerobes
Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible strains)
Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-susceptible strains)
Streptococcus pyogenes

Anaerobes
Prevotella melaninogenica
Fusobacterium necrophorum
Fusobacterium nucleatum
Peptostreptococcus anaerobius
Clostridium perfringens

At least 90% of the microorganisms listed below exhibit in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) less than or equal to the clindamycin susceptible MIC breakpoint for organisms of a similar type. However, the efficacy of clindamycin in treating clinical infections due to these microorganisms has not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.

Gram-positive aerobes
Staphylococcus epidermidis (methicillin-susceptible strains)
Streptococcus agalactiae
Streptococcus anginosus
Streptococcus oralis
Streptococcus mitis

Anaerobes
Prevotella intermedia
Prevotella bivia
Propionibacterium acnes
Micromonas ("Peptostreptococcus") micros
Finegoldia ("Peptostreptococcus") magna
Actinomyces israelii
Clostridium clostridioforme
Eubacterium lentum

INDICATIONS AND USAGE:
CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE products are indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria.

CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE products are also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis, as described in the WARNING box, before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (e.g., erythromycin).

Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.

Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.

CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated organisms in the conditions listed below:

Lower respiratory tract infections including pneumonia, empyema, and lung abscess caused by anaerobes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, other streptococci (except E. faecalis), and Staphylococcus aureus.

Skin and skin structure infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and anaerobes.

Gynecological infections including endometritis, nongonococcal tubo-ovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis, and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection caused by susceptible anaerobes.

Intra-abdominal infections including peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess caused by susceptible anaerobic organisms.

Septicemia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci (except Enterococcus faecalis), and susceptible anaerobes.

Bone and joint infections including acute hematogenous osteomyelitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and as adjunctive therapy in the surgical treatment of chronic bone and joint infections due to susceptible organisms.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE and other antibacterial drugs, CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
If diarrhea occurs during therapy, this antibiotic should be discontinued (see WARNING box).

Clindamycin phosphate IM administration should be used undiluted.
Clindamycin phosphate IV administration should be diluted (See Dilution for IV use and IV infusion rates below)

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PARENTERAL (IV)
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Adults
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Parenteral (IM or IV Administration): Serious infections due to aerobic gram-positive cocci and the more susceptible anaerobes (NOT generally including Bacteroides fragilis, Peptococcus species and Clostridium species other than Clostridium perfringens):

600-1200 mg/day in 2, 3 or 4 equal doses.

More severe infections, particularly those due to proven or suspected Bacteroides fragilis, Peptococcus species, or Clostridium species other than Clostridium perfringens:

1200-2700 mg/day in 2, 3 or 4 equal doses.

For more serious infections, these doses may have to be increased. In life-threatening situations due to either aerobes or anaerobes these doses may be increased. Doses of as much as 4800 mg daily have been given intravenously to adults. See Dilution for IV use and IV Infusion Rates section below.

Single intramuscular injections of greater than 600 mg are not recommended.

Alternatively, drug may be administered in the form of a single rapid infusion of the first dose followed by continuous IV infusion as follows:
To maintain serum clindamycin levels Rapid infusion rate Maintenance infusion rate
Above 4 mcg/mL 10 mg/min for 30 min 0.75 mg/min
Above 5 mcg/mL 15 mg/min for 30 min 1.00 mg/min
Above 6 mcg/mL 20 mg/min for 30 min 1.25 mg/min


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Neonates (less than 1 month)
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15 to 20 mg/kg/day in 3 to 4 equal doses. The lower dosage may be adequate for small prematures.

Pediatric patients 1 month of age to 16 years

Parenteral (IM or IV) Administration: 20 to 40 mg/kg/day in 3 or 4 equal doses. The higher doses would be used for more severe infections. As an alternative to dosing on a body weight basis, pediatric patients may be dosed on the basis of square meters body surface: 350 mg/m2/day for serious infections and 450 mg/m2/day for more severe infections.

Parenteral therapy may be changed to oral CLEOCIN PEDIATRIC® Flavored Granules (clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride) or CLEOCIN HCl® Capsules (clindamycin hydrochloride) when the condition warrants and at the discretion of the physician.

In cases of beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections, treatment should be continued for at least 10 days.

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Dilution for IV use and IV Infusion Rates
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The concentration of clindamycin in diluent for infusion should not exceed 18 mg per mL. Infusion rates should not exceed 30 mg per minute. The usual infusion dilutions and rates are as follows:
Dose Diluent Time
300 mg 50 mL 10 min
600 mg 50 mL 20 min
900 mg 50-100 mL 30 min
1200 mg   100 mL 40 min

Administration of more than 1200 mg in a single 1-hour infusion is not recommended.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

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Dilution and Compatibility
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Physical and biological compatibility studies monitored for 24 hours at room temperature have demonstrated no inactivation or incompatibility with the use of CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE Sterile Solution (clindamycin phosphate) in IV solutions containing sodium chloride, glucose, calcium or potassium, and solutions containing vitamin B complex in concentrations usually used clinically. No incompatibility has been demonstrated with the antibiotics cephalothin, kanamycin, gentamicin, penicillin or carbenicillin.

The following drugs are physically incompatible with clindamycin phosphate: ampicillin sodium, phenytoin sodium, barbiturates, aminophylline, calcium gluconate, and magnesium sulfate.

The compatibility and duration of stability of drug admixtures will vary depending on concentration and other conditions. For current information regarding compatibilities of clindamycin phosphate under specific conditions, please contact the Medical and Drug Information Unit, Pharmacia & Upjohn Company (Division of Pfizer Inc).


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ORAL
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If significant diarrhea occurs during therapy, this antibiotic should be discontinued (see WARNING box).

Adults: Serious infections - 150 to 300 mg every 6 hours. More severe infections - 300 to 450 mg every 6 hours. Pediatric Patients: Serious infections - 8 to 16 mg/kg/day (4 to 8 mg/lb/day) divided into three or four equal doses. More severe infections - 16 to 20 mg/kg/day (8 to 10 mg/lb/day) divided into three or four equal doses.

To avoid the possibility of esophageal irritation, CLEOCIN HCl Capsules should be taken with a full glass of water.

Serious infections due to anaerobic bacteria are usually treated with CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE® Sterile Solution. However, in clinically appropriate circumstances, the physician may elect to initiate treatment or continue treatment with CLEOCIN HCl Capsules.

In cases of beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections, treatment should continue for at least 10 days.


Renal Dosing:
Dosage schedules need not be modified in the presence of mild or moderate renal or hepatic disease.

SUPPLIED:
IV:
Each mL of CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE Sterile Solution contains clindamycin phosphate equivalent to 150 mg clindamycin, 0.5 mg disodium edetate,; 9.45 mg benzyl alcohol added as preservative. When necessary, pH is adjusted with sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid. CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE is available in the following packages:
1-2 mL vial NDC 0009-0302-02
1-4 mL vial NDC 0009-0602-04
1-6 mL vial NDC 0009-0901-06
25-2 mL vials NDC 0009-0302-25
25-4 mL vials NDC 0009-0602-25
25-6 mL vials NDC 0009-0901-25

Oral:
CLEOCIN HCl Capsules are available in the following strengths, colors and sizes:
75 mg Green
Bottles of 100 NDC 0009-0331-02
150 mg Light Blue and Green
Bottles of 100 NDC 0009-0225-02
Unit dose package of 100 NDC 0009-0225-03
300 mg Light Blue
Bottles of 100 NDC 0009-0395-14
Unit dose package of 100 NDC 0009-0395-02

Store at controlled room temperature 20° to 25° C (68° to 77° F) [see USP].

SOURCE:
Package insert data:

 ®: top of page

Microbiology:
INDICATIONS AND USAGE:
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
Renal Dosing:
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS:
SUPPLIED:
SOURCE:
Package insert data:

Reference(s)

National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, DailyMed Database.
Provides access to the latest drug monographs submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Please review the latest applicable package insert for additional information and possible updates.  A local search option of this data can be found here.

Disclaimer

Listed dosages are for - Adult patients ONLY. if applicable for additional information. The authors make no claims of the accuracy of the information contained herein; and these suggested doses are not a substitute for clinical judgment. Neither GlobalRPh Inc. nor any other party involved in the preparation of this program shall be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting in whole or part from any user's use of or reliance upon this material. PLEASE READ THE DISCLAIMER CAREFULLY BEFORE ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE. BY ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE, YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS SET FORTH IN THE DISCLAIMER.   Read the disclaimer   |   <BACK
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