Insulins  - Classes / Kinetics / Mixing

Insulin Classes

Rapid-Acting Analogues

Short-Acting Insulin's

Rapid-Acting Analogues Short-Acting Insulins

Intermediate-Acting Insulin's

Long-Acting Insulin's

Intermediate-Acting Insulins Long-Acting Insulins

Combination Insulin's

Combination Insulins  

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Insulin is a polypeptide hormone that controls the storage and metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. This activity occurs primarily in the liver, in muscle, and in adipose tissues after binding of the insulin molecules to receptor sites on cellular plasma membranes.

Insulin promotes uptake of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in most tissues. Also, insulin influences carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism by stimulating protein and free fatty acid synthesis, and by inhibiting release of free fatty acid from adipose cells. Insulin increases active glucose transport through muscle and adipose cellular membranes, and promotes conversion of intracellular glucose and free fatty acid to the appropriate storage forms (glycogen and triglyceride, respectively). Although the liver does not require active glucose transport, insulin increases hepatic glucose conversion to glycogen and suppresses hepatic glucose output. Even though the actions of exogenous insulin are identical to those of endogenous insulin, the ability to negatively affect hepatic glucose output differs on a unit per unit basis because a smaller quantity of an exogenous insulin dose reaches the portal vein.

When control of insulin levels fails, diabetes mellitus will result. As a consequence, insulin is used medically to treat some forms of diabetes mellitus. Patients with type 1 diabetes depend on external insulin for their survival because the hormone is no longer produced internally. Patients with type 2 diabetes are often insulin resistant, and because of such resistance, may suffer from a "relative" insulin deficiency. Some patients with type 2 diabetes may eventually require insulin if other medications fail to control blood glucose levels adequately. Over 40% of those with Type 2 diabetes require insulin as part of their diabetes management plan.


National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, DailyMed Database.
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David F. McAuley, Pharm.D., R.Ph.  GlobalRPh Inc.
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