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HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
These highlights do not include all the information needed to use BYSTOLIC safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for BYSTOLIC.
BYSTOLIC® (nebivolol) tablets, for oral use
Initial U.S. Approval: 2007
The chemical name for the active ingredient in BYSTOLIC (nebivolol) tablets is (1RS,1'RS)-1,1'-[(2RS,2'SR)-bis(6-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-2-yl)]- 2,2'-iminodiethanol hydrochloride. Nebivolol is a racemate composed of d-Nebivolol and l-Nebivolol with the stereochemical designations of [SRRR]-nebivolol and [RSSS]-nebivolol, respectively.
Nebivolol is a -adrenergic receptor blocking agent. In extensive metabolizers (most of the population) and at doses less than or equal to 10 mg, nebivolol is preferentially 1 selective. In poor metabolizers and at higher doses, nebivolol inhibits both 1 - and 2 - adrenergic receptors. Nebivolol lacks intrinsic sympathomimetic and membrane stabilizing activity at therapeutically relevant concentrations. At clinically relevant doses, BYSTOLIC does not demonstrate 1-adrenergic receptor blockade activity. Various metabolites, including glucuronides, contribute to -blocking activity.
Mechanism of Action
The mechanism of action of the antihypertensive response of BYSTOLIC has not been definitively established. Possible factors that may be involved include: (1) decreased heart rate, (2) decreased myocardial contractility, (3) diminution of tonic sympathetic outflow to the periphery from cerebral vasomotor centers, (4) suppression of renin activity and (5) vasodilation and decreased peripheral vascular resistance.
Nebivolol is metabolized by a number of routes, including glucuronidation and hydroxylation by CYP2D6. The active isomer (d-nebivolol) has an effective half-life of about 12 hours in CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (most people), and 19 hours in poor metabolizers and exposure to d-nebivolol is substantially increased in poor metabolizers. This has less importance than usual, however, because the metabolites, including the hydroxyl metabolite and glucuronides (the predominant circulating metabolites), contribute to -blocking activity.
Plasma levels of d–nebivolol increase in proportion to dose in EMs and PMs for doses up to 20mg. Exposure to l-nebivolol is higher than to d-nebivolol but l-nebivolol contributes little to the drug's activity as d-nebivolol's beta receptor affinity is > 1000-fold higher than l-nebivolol. For the same dose, PMs attain a 5-fold higher Cmax and 10-fold higher AUC of d-nebivolol than do EMs. d-Nebivolol accumulates about 1.5-fold with repeated once-daily dosing in EMs.
Absorption of BYSTOLIC is similar to an oral solution. The absolute bioavailability has not been determined.
Mean peak plasma nebivolol concentrations occur approximately 1.5 to 4 hours post-dosing in EMs and PMs.
Food does not alter the pharmacokinetics of nebivolol. Under fed conditions, nebivolol glucuronides are slightly reduced. BYSTOLIC may be administered without regard to meals.
The in vitro human plasma protein binding of nebivolol is approximately 98%, mostly to albumin, and is independent of nebivolol concentrations.
Nebivolol is predominantly metabolized via direct glucuronidation of parent and to a lesser extent via N-dealkylation and oxidation via cytochrome P450 2D6. Its stereospecific metabolites contribute to the pharmacologic activity.
After a single oral administration of 14C-nebivolol, 38% of the dose was recovered in urine and 44% in feces for EMs and 67% in urine and 13% in feces for PMs. Essentially all nebivolol was excreted as multiple oxidative metabolites or their corresponding glucuronide conjugates.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
BYSTOLIC is a beta-adrenergic blocking agent indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions.
--Heart block greater than first degree
--Patients with cardiogenic shock
--Decompensated cardiac failure
--Sick sinus syndrome (unless a permanent pacemaker is in place)
--Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh >B)
--Hypersensitive to any component of this product
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
--Acute exacerbation of coronary artery disease upon cessation of therapy: Do not abruptly discontinue
--Diabetes: Monitor glucose as -blockers may mask symptoms of hypoglycemia
--CYP2D6 enzyme inhibitors may increase nebivolol levels
--Reserpine or clonidine may produce excessive reduction of sympathetic activity.
--Both digitalis glycosides and -blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia.
--Verapamil- or diltiazem-type calcium channel blockers may cause excessive reductions in heart rate, blood pressure, and cardiac contractility.
Most common adverse reactions:
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, Contact Forest Laboratories, Inc. at 1-800-678-1605 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The dose of BYSTOLIC must be individualized to the needs of the patient. For most patients, the recommended starting dose is 5 mg once daily, with or without food, as monotherapy or in combination with other agents. For patients requiring further reduction in blood pressure, the dose can be increased at 2-week intervals up to 40 mg. A more frequent dosing regimen is unlikely to be beneficial.
In patients with severe renal impairment (ClCr less than 30 mL/min) the recommended initial dose is 2.5 mg once daily; titrate up slowly if needed. BYSTOLIC has not been studied in patients receiving dialysis.
In patients with moderate hepatic impairment, the recommended initial dose is 2.5 mg once daily; titrate up slowly if needed. BYSTOLIC has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment and therefore it is not recommended in that population.
It is not necessary to adjust the dose in the elderly.
No dose adjustments are necessary for patients who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. The clinical effect and safety profile observed in poor metabolizers were similar to those of extensive metabolizers
DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Tablets: 2.5, 5, 10, 20 mg
Package Insert data:
Rev. June 2011
Forest Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Subsidiary of Forest Laboratories, Inc.
St. Louis, MO 63045, USA
Licensed from Mylan Laboratories, Inc.
Under license from Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V., Beerse, Belgium
Actidose-Aqua® is a registered trademark of Paddock Laboratories, Inc.
© 2010 Forest Laboratories, Inc.
PACKAGE LABEL - PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 2.5 MG LABEL
FOREST PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.