logo
oncology header image

Drug:  Aldesleukin (Proleukin®)

The authors make no claims of the accuracy of the information contained herein; and these suggested doses and/or guidelines are not a substitute for clinical judgment. Neither GlobalRPh Inc. nor any other party involved in the preparation of this document shall be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting in whole or part from any user's use of or reliance upon this material.    PLEASE READ THE DISCLAIMER CAREFULLY BEFORE ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE. BY ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE, YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS SET FORTH IN THE DISCLAIMER.

Usual Diluents

 D5W

Dilution Data

[Amount of drug] [Infusion volume] [Infusion rate]

Dilution:
[Prescribed dose] [ 50 ml] [15 minutes]
*

*IMPORTANT
In cases where the total dose of PROLEUKIN is 1.5 mg or less (e.g., a patient with a body weight of less than 40 kilograms), the dose of PROLEUKIN should be diluted in a smaller volume of D5W. Concentrations of PROLEUKIN below 30 µg/mL and above 70 µg/mL have shown increased variability in drug delivery. Dilution and delivery of PROLEUKIN outside of this concentration range should be avoided.

[Final concentrations below 30 mcg/ml:  Albumin must be added to the bag prior to aldesleukin at a final concentration of 0.1% if a lower concentration cannot be avoided.  The addition of albumin should increase stability and decrease the extent of adsorbtion to the container.]

EACH VIAL CONTAINS 22 MILLION IU (1.3 MG) OF PROLEUKIN AND SHOULD BE RECONSTITUTED ASEPTICALLY WITH 1.2 ML OF STERILE WATER FOR INJECTION, USP. WHEN RECONSTITUTED AS DIRECTED, EACH ML CONTAINS 18 MILLION IU (1.1 MG) OF PROLEUKIN.  During reconstitution, the Sterile Water for Injection, USP should be directed at the side of the vial and the contents gently swirled to avoid excess foaming. DO NOT SHAKE.

DO NOT FILTER.

Stability / Miscellaneous

WARNINGS CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY INDICATIONS
CONTRAINDICATIONS DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION RECONSTITUTION / DILUTION
  HOW SUPPLIED  
Note: double mouse click to return to the top of the page




WARNING
Therapy with PROLEUKIN® (aldesleukin) for injection should be restricted to patients with normal cardiac and pulmonary functions as defined by thallium stress testing and formal pulmonary function testing. Extreme caution should be used in patients with a normal thallium stress test and a normal pulmonary function test who have a history of cardiac or pulmonary disease.

PROLEUKIN should be administered in a hospital setting under the supervision of a qualified physician experienced in the use of anticancer agents. An intensive care facility and specialists skilled in cardiopulmonary or intensive care medicine must be available.

PROLEUKIN administration has been associated with capillary leak syndrome (CLS) which is characterized by a loss of vascular tone and extravasation of plasma proteins and fluid into the extravascular space. CLS results in hypotension and reduced organ perfusion which may be severe and can result in death. CLS may be associated with cardiac arrhythmias (supraventricular and ventricular), angina, myocardial infarction, respiratory insufficiency requiring intubation, gastrointestinal bleeding or infarction, renal insufficiency, edema, and mental status changes.

PROLEUKIN treatment is associated with impaired neutrophil function (reduced chemotaxis) and with an increased risk of disseminated infection, including sepsis and bacterial endocarditis. Consequently, preexisting bacterial infections should be adequately treated prior to initiation of PROLEUKIN therapy. Patients with indwelling central lines are particularly at risk for infection with gram positive microorganisms. Antibiotic prophylaxis with oxacillin, nafcillin, ciprofloxacin, or vancomycin has been associated with a reduced incidence of staphylococcal infections.

PROLEUKIN administration should be withheld in patients developing moderate to severe lethargy or somnolence; continued administration may result in coma.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
PROLEUKIN® (aldesleukin) has been shown to possess the biological activities of human native interleukin-2. In vitro studies performed on human cell lines demonstrate the immunoregulatory properties of PROLEUKIN, including: a) enhancement of lymphocyte mitogenesis and stimulation of long-term growth of human interleukin-2 dependent cell lines; b) enhancement of lymphocyte cytotoxicity; c) induction of killer cell (lymphokine-activated (LAK) and natural (NK)) activity; and d) induction of interferon-gamma production.

The in vivo administration of PROLEUKIN in animals and humans produces multiple immunological effects in a dose dependent manner. These effects include activation of cellular immunity with profound lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, and thrombocytopenia, and the production of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor, IL-1 and gamma interferon. In vivo experiments in murine tumor models have shown inhibition of tumor growth. The exact mechanism by which PROLEUKIN mediates its antitumor activity in animals and humans is unknown.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE
PROLEUKIN® (aldesleukin) is indicated for the treatment of adults with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (metastatic RCC).

PROLEUKIN is indicated for the treatment of adults with metastatic melanoma.

Careful patient selection is mandatory prior to the administration of PROLEUKIN. See package insert for the following: “CONTRAINDICATIONS”, “WARNINGS” and “PRECAUTIONS” sections regarding patient screening, including recommended cardiac and pulmonary function tests and laboratory tests.

Evaluation of clinical studies to date reveals that patients with more favorable ECOG performance status (ECOG PS 0) at treatment initiation respond better to PROLEUKIN, with a higher response rate and lower toxicity (see package insert for the following: “CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY” section, “Clinical Experience” subsection and “ADVERSE REACTIONS” section). Therefore, selection of patients for treatment should include assessment of performance status.

Experience in patients with ECOG PS >1 is extremely limited.


CONTRAINDICATIONS
PROLEUKIN® (aldesleukin) is contraindicated in patients with a known history of hypersensitivity to interleukin-2 or any component of the PROLEUKIN formulation.

PROLEUKIN is contraindicated in patients with an abnormal thallium stress test or abnormal pulmonary function tests and those with organ allografts. Retreatment with PROLEUKIN is contraindicated in patients who have experienced the following drug-related toxicities while receiving an earlier course of therapy:

• Sustained ventricular tachycardia (geq5 beats)

• Cardiac arrhythmias not controlled or unresponsive to management

• Chest pain with ECG changes, consistent with angina or myocardial infarction

• Cardiac tamponade

• Intubation for >72 hours

• Renal failure requiring dialysis >72 hours

• Coma or toxic psychosis lasting >48 hours

• Repetitive or difficult to control seizures

• Bowel ischemia/perforation

• GI bleeding requiring surgery

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The recommended PROLEUKIN® (aldesleukin) for injection treatment regimen is administered by a 15-minute IV infusion every 8 hours. Before initiating treatment, carefully review the package insert for  “INDICATIONS AND USAGE”, “CONTRAINDICATIONS”, “WARNINGS”, “PRECAUTIONS”, and “ADVERSE REACTIONS” sections, particularly regarding patient selection, possible serious adverse events, patient monitoring and withholding dosage. The following schedule has been used to treat adult patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (metastatic RCC) or metastatic melanoma. Each course of treatment consists of two 5-day treatment cycles separated by a rest period.
----
600,000 IU/kg (0.037 mg/kg) dose administered every 8 hours by a 15-minute IV
infusion for a maximum of 14 doses. Following 9 days of rest, the schedule is
repeated for another 14 doses, for a maximum of 28 doses per course, as tolerated.
During clinical trials, doses were frequently withheld for toxicity (see “Clinical
Experience” and “Dose Modifications” subsections). Metastatic RCC patients
treated with this schedule received a median of 20 of the 28 doses during the first
course of therapy. Metastatic melanoma patients received a median of 18 doses
during the first course of therapy.
-----


Retreatment
Patients should be evaluated for response approximately 4 weeks after completion of a course of therapy and again immediately prior to the scheduled start of the next treatment course. Additional courses of treatment should be given to patients only if there is some tumor shrinkage following the last course and retreatment is not contraindicated (see “CONTRAINDICATIONS” section). Each treatment course should be separated by a rest period of at least 7 weeks from the date of hospital discharge.


Dose Modifications
Dose modification for toxicity should be accomplished by withholding or interrupting a dose rather than reducing the dose to be given. Decisions to stop, hold, or restart PROLEUKIN therapy must be made after a global assessment of the patient. With this in mind, the following guidelines should be used:

Retreatment with PROLEUKIN is contraindicated in patients who have experienced the following toxicities:
Body System
Cardiovascular:
  Sustained ventricular tachycardia (geq5 beats). 
  Cardiac rhythm disturbances not controlled or unresponsive to management.   
  Chest pain with ECG changes, consistent with angina or myocardial infarction.   
  Cardiac tamponade
Respiratory:
   Intubation for >72 hours
Urogenital:
   Renal failure requiring dialysis >72 hours.
Nervous:
   Coma or toxic psychosis lasting >48 hours .
   Repetitive or difficult to control seizures.
Digestive:
   Bowel ischemia/perforation.
   GI bleeding requiring surgery.

Doses should be held and restarted according to the following:
Body System Hold dose for Subsequent doses may be given if
Cardiovascular Atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia or bradycardia that requires treatment or is recurrent or persistent Patient is asymptomatic with full recovery to normal sinus rhythm
  Systolic bp <90 mm Hg with increasing requirements for pressors Systolic bp geq90 mm Hg and stable or improving requirements for pressors
  Any ECG change consistent with MI, ischemia or myocarditis with or without chest pain; suspicion of cardiac ischemia Patient is asymptomatic, MI and myocarditis have been ruled out, clinical suspicion of angina is low; there is no evidence of ventricular hypokinesia
Respiratory O2 saturation <90% O2 saturation >90%
Nervous Mental status changes, including moderate confusion or agitation Mental status changes completely resolved
Body as a Whole Sepsis syndrome, patient is clinically unstable Sepsis syndrome has resolved, patient is clinically stable, infection is under treatment
Urogenital Serum creatinine >4.5 mg/dL or a serum creatinine of geq4 mg/dL in the presence of severe volume overload, acidosis, or hyperkalemia Serum creatinine <4 mg/dL and fluid and electrolyte status is stable
  Persistent oliguria, urine output of <10 mL/hour for 16 to 24 hours with rising serum creatinine Urine output >10 mL/hour with a decrease of serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dL or normalization of serum creatinine
Digestive Signs of hepatic failure including encephalopathy, increasing ascites, liver pain, hypoglycemia All signs of hepatic failure have resolved*
  Stool guaiac repeatedly >3-4+ Stool guaiac negative
Skin Bullous dermatitis or marked worsening of pre-existing skin condition, avoid topical steroid therapy Resolution of all signs of bullous dermatitis
* Discontinue all further treatment for that course. A new course of treatment, if warranted, should be initiated no sooner than 7 weeks after cessation of adverse event and hospital discharge.
 

Reconstitution and Dilution Directions:
Reconstitution and dilution procedures other than those recommended may alter the delivery and/or pharmacology of PROLEUKIN and thus should be avoided.

1. PROLEUKIN® (aldesleukin) is a sterile, white to off-white, preservative-free, lyophilized powder suitable for IV infusion upon reconstitution and dilution. EACH VIAL CONTAINS 22 MILLION IU (1.3 MG) OF PROLEUKIN AND SHOULD BE RECONSTITUTED ASEPTICALLY WITH 1.2 ML OF STERILE WATER FOR INJECTION, USP. WHEN RECONSTITUTED AS DIRECTED, EACH ML CONTAINS 18 MILLION IU (1.1 MG) OF PROLEUKIN. The resulting solution should be a clear, colorless to slightly yellow liquid. The vial is for single-use only and any unused portion should be discarded.

2. During reconstitution, the Sterile Water for Injection, USP should be directed at the side of the vial and the contents gently swirled to avoid excess foaming. DO NOT SHAKE.

3. The dose of PROLEUKIN, reconstituted with Sterile Water for Injection, USP (without preservative) should be diluted aseptically in 50 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection, USP (D5W) and infused over a 15-minute period.

In cases where the total dose of PROLEUKIN is 1.5 mg or less (e.g., a patient with a body weight of less than 40 kilograms), the dose of PROLEUKIN should be diluted in a smaller volume of D5W. Concentrations of PROLEUKIN below 30 µg/mL and above 70 µg/mL have shown increased variability in drug delivery. Dilution and delivery of PROLEUKIN outside of this concentration range should be avoided.

4. Glass bottles and plastic (polyvinyl chloride) bags have been used in clinical trials with comparable results. It is recommended that plastic bags be used as the dilution container since experimental studies suggest that use of plastic containers results in more consistent drug delivery. In-line filters should not be used when administering PROLEUKIN.

5. Before and after reconstitution and dilution, store in a refrigerator at 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F). Do not freeze. Administer PROLEUKIN within 48 hours of reconstitution. The solution should be brought to room temperature prior to infusion in the patient.

6. Reconstitution or dilution with Bacteriostatic Water for Injection, USP, or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP should be avoided because of increased aggregation. PROLEUKIN should not be coadministered with other drugs in the same container.

7. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.


HOW SUPPLIED
PROLEUKIN® (aldesleukin) for injection is supplied in individually boxed single-use vials. Each vial contains 22 x 106 IU of PROLEUKIN. Discard unused portion.

NDC 0078-0495-61 Individually boxed single-use vial

Store vials of lyophilized PROLEUKIN in a refrigerator at 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F). PROTECT FROM LIGHT. Store in carton until time of use.

Reconstituted or diluted PROLEUKIN is stable for up to 48 hours at refrigerated and room temperatures, 2° to 25°C (36° to 77°F). However, since this product contains no preservative, the reconstituted and diluted solutions should be stored in the refrigerator.

Do not use beyond the expiration date printed on the vial. NOTE: This product contains no preservative

Reference(s)

PRIMARY:
1)  [PACKAGE INSERT DATA] :  Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation.  East Hanover, NJ 07936. PROLEUKIN® - Aldesleukin For Injection Package insert. October 2008.

2) Solimando, Dominic A. Drug Information Handbook for Oncology: A Complete Guide to Combination Chemotherapy Regimens, 8th ed. Hudson, OH: Lexi-Comp, Inc.; 2010.


OTHER REFERENCES:
1. Doyle MV, Lee MT, Fong S. Comparison of the biological activities of human recombinant interleukin-2125 and native interleukin-2. J Biol Response Mod 1985; 4:96-109.

2. Ralph P, Nakoinz I, Doyle M, et al. Human B and T lymphocyte stimulating properties of interleukin-2 (IL-2) muteins. In: Immune Regulation By Characterized Polypeptides. Alan R. Liss, Inc. 1987; 453-62.

3. Winkelhake JL and Gauny SS. Human recombinant interleukin-2 as an experimental therapeutic. Pharmacol Rev 1990; 42:1-28.

4. Rosenberg SA, Mule JJ, Spiess PJ, et al. Regression of established pulmonary metastases and subcutaneous tumor mediated by the systemic administration of high-dose recombinant interleukin-2. J Exp Med 1985; 161:1169-88.

5. Konrad MW, Hemstreet G, Hersh EM, et al. Pharmacokinetics of recombinant interleukin-2 in humans. Cancer Res 1990; 50:2009-17.

6. Donohue JH and Rosenberg SA. The fate of interleukin-2 after in vivo administration. J Immunol 1983; 130:2203-8.

7. Koths K, Halenbeck R. Pharmacokinetic studies on 35S-labeled recombinant interleukin-2 in mice. In: Sorg C and Schimpl A, eds. Cellular and Molecular Biology of Lymphokines. Academic Press: Orlando, FL, 1985;779.

8. Gibbons JA, Luo ZP, Hansen ER, et al. Quantitation of the renal clearance of interleukin-2 using nephrectomized and ureter ligated rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 272: 119-125.

9. Bock SN, Lee RE, Fisher B, et al. A prospective randomized trial evaluating prophylactic antibiotics to prevent triple-lumen catheter-related sepsis in patients treated with immunotherapy. J Clin Oncol 1990; 8:161-69.

10. Hartman LC, Urba WJ, Steis RG, et al. Use of prophylactic antibiotics for prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections in interleukin-2-treated patients. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989; 81:1190-93.

11. Snydman DR, Sullivan B, Gill M, et al. Nosocomial sepsis associated with interleukin-2. Ann Intern Med 1990; 112:102-07.

12. Mier JW, Vachino G, Klempner MS, et al. Inhibition of interleukin-2-induced tumor necrosis factor release by dexamethasone: Prevention of an acquired neutrophil chemotaxis defect and differential suppression of interleukin-2 associated side effects. Blood 1990; 76:1933-40.

13. Choyke PL, Miller DL, Lotze MT, et al. Delayed reactions to contrast media after interleukin-2 immunotherapy. Radiology 1992; 183:111-114.

< Disclaimer > top of page icon

The authors make no claims of the accuracy of the information contained herein; and these suggested doses and/or guidelines are not a substitute for clinical judgment. Neither GlobalRPh Inc. nor any other party involved in the preparation of this document shall be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting in whole or part from any user's use of or reliance upon this material.    PLEASE READ THE DISCLAIMER CAREFULLY BEFORE ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE. BY ACCESSING OR USING THIS SITE, YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS SET FORTH IN THE DISCLAIMER.
Medical Calculators - A thru Z
Lab Values - A thru Z